California Digital Library TEI Best Practice Guidelines for Encoding Oral Histories

California Digital Library Structured Text Working Group

The encoding guidelines provided here are unedited working drafts produced by CDL's Structured Text Working Group. They should not be treated as final documents. Updated guidelines will be available in November 2004.


Table of Contents

Introduction
Using These Guidelines
1. General Instructions
1.1. File Management and ARKs
1.1.1. Naming
1.1.2. Associated Content Files
1.1.3. Image Files
1.2. Invoking the CDL TEI Oral History DTD
1.3. Case Sensitivity
1.4. Character Encoding
1.5. Hyphenation
1.6. Extent of Encoding
1.7. Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) Record
2. Encoding Practice
2.1. Root Element
2.1.1. <TEI.2>
2.2. Document Header
2.2.1. <teiHeader>
2.3. Text Structure
2.3.1. <text>
2.3.2. <group>
2.4. Front Matter
2.4.1. <front>
2.4.2. <titlePage>
2.4.3. Tables of Contents
2.5. Document Body
2.5.1. <body>
2.6. Back Matter
2.6.1. <back>
2.6.2. Appendices
2.6.3. Indexes
2.7. Divisions
2.7.1. <divn>
2.8. Division Headings, Openers, and Closers
2.8.1. <head>
2.8.2. <epigraph>
2.8.3. <opener>, <closer>
2.8.4. <byline>
2.8.5. <dateline>
2.9. Paragraphs
2.9.1. <p>
2.10. Page Breaks and Milestones
2.10.1. <pb>
2.10.2. <lb>
2.10.3. <milestone>
2.10.4. Tape Numbers, Reel Numbers, and Interview Dates
2.11. Typographical Phenomena and Formatting
2.11.1. <hi>
2.11.2. Nested <hi> Tags
2.11.3. <emph>
2.11.4. Alignment and Indention
2.12. Language Shifts
2.12.1. <foreign>
2.13. Quotations
2.13.1. <quote>
2.13.2. <cit>
2.14. Speech
2.14.1. <sp>
2.14.2. <speaker>
2.15. Verse
2.15.1. <divn> in Verse
2.15.2. <head> in Verse
2.15.3. <l>
2.15.4. <lg>
2.15.5. <closer>
2.16. Notes
2.16.1. <note>
2.16.2. In-line notes
2.16.3. Footnotes
2.16.4. Endnotes
2.16.5. <bibl> in <note>
2.17. Names, Dates, and Addresses
2.17.1. <name>
2.17.2. <date>
2.17.3. <address>, <addrLine>
2.18. Lists
2.18.1. <list>
2.18.2. Standard Ordered Lists
2.18.3. Non-standard Ordered Lists
2.18.4. <label>
2.19. Bibliographies
2.19.1. <bibl>, <listBibl>
2.19.2. <title> levels
2.19.3. <note> in Bibliographic Citations
2.20. Internal Links and Cross References
2.20.1. <ref>
2.21. External Objects
2.21.1. <xref>
2.22. Graphic Elements
2.22.1. Tables
2.22.2. <figure>
2.22.3. Formulas
2.23. Arbitrary Containers and Segments
2.23.1. <seg>
2.23.2. <ab>
3. Quality Assurance
3.1. Validation
3.2. Best Practice Checking
3.3. Proofreading
Tag Library

Introduction

This document is part of a collection of best practice guidelines established by the California Digital Library's Structured Text Working Group for encoding electronic texts. The guidelines provide best practices for marking up XML documents in accordance with the Textual Encoding Initiative's TEI P4: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange (TEI P4). All projects submitting text documents to the CDL must follow the CDL TEI best bractices in order to produce files that may be automatically ingested and distributed by the CDL. There are four separate but related guidelines available, each geared toward a specific type of text, each accompanied by a specific DTD:

All of the above guidelines also require projects to consult the CDL's separate, universal set of guidelines for creating a TEI header: California Digital Library Best Practice Guidelines for Encoding TEI Headers

These documents assume that readers are already familiar with the basics of XML and TEI P4 and are only seeking guidance as to how to apply them to specific cases. In other words, the best practices guidelines are not exhaustive instructions on XML nor the TEI. Not every element nor attribute available through a particular CDL TEI DTD is discussed in-depth, although a complete list of available elements and attributes for each set of best practices can be found in the appendix of each set of guidelines.

All CDL TEI best practices also assume that the electronic text being encoded is being derived principally, if not wholly, from an existing paper source document. That is, these guidelines are not expressly intended for projects creating born-digital texts, although they may be adapted for such use. These guidelines are intended for projects that are producing semi-diplomatic transcriptions of a source document with few if any editorial changes. While projects may choose not to reproduce the look or layout of a source document through their encoding, no emendation (meaning deliberate editorial change) of any textual element in the source document is permitted unless the project's emendation policy, spelling out what has been changed and what preserved, can be consistently applied and clearly explained in the document header.

The CDL TEI Best Practice Guidelines for Encoding Oral Histories are for the encoding of transcriptions of recorded oral histories. As with all CDL TEI guidelines, this document is meant to be used in conjunction with full documentation for TEI P4. Where an issue is not directly addressed in these guidelines, the official TEI Guidelines should be consulted.

Using These Guidelines

These guidelines are prescriptive. However, not all individual practices mentioned here are absolutely required for compliance to the standard. The following list provides the words and phrases that should serve as cues throughout this document as to whether a practice is required, recommended, or optional:

  • REQUIRED

    must, must not, will, will not, do, do not

    Unless the practice is followed, the document will not be considered valid as a CDL TEI document. Where possible, these practices will be enforced by the DTD or schema.

  • RECOMMENDED

    should, should not

    The recommendation should be followed if possible; it should only be violated if the encoder has a good reason for doing so. Where possible, these recommendations will be enforced by the CDL using a Schematron assertion language schema.

  • OPTIONAL

    may, may not, can, cannot

    Although suggested, the practice is optional. Encoders may choose other valid strategies as necessary.

If a question arises that cannot be resolved through consulting these guidelines, the encoder should consult official TEI P4 documentation. Throughout these guidelines, relevant sections of TEI P4 will be referenced using the following notation:

[P4: 11.2]

Chapter 1. General Instructions

1.1. File Management and ARKs

Every digital object submitted to the CDL, including objects that are associated files referenced by the main XML document, must be assigned an Archival Resource Key (ARK) that will serve as the object's unique and persistent identifier. Projects may obtain ARKs through the CDL for use in their encoding, or their files may automatically be assigned ARKs by the CDL upon ingest. The method by which a project's files will receive ARKs should be negotiated in advance and laid out in each project's submission agreement with the CDL.

For TEI files, each text's ARK will also be assigned as the value of the id attribute in the root element of the text's XML file. It will also be recorded in an <idno> element in the text's TEI header.

1.1.1. Naming

It is highly recommended that where possible the ARK also be used for naming TEI files, using the following convention:

ARK.xml, where "ARK" is the unique key assgned.

To facilitate the ingest of files, projects should use the following naming conventions for images, PDFs, and other associated content:

ARK_NAME.EXTENSION, where "ARK" is the unique key assigned, "NAME" is the result of whatever local naming convention has been applied to individual files, and " EXTENSION" is the normal file format extension (".gif", ".jpg", ".pdf", etc.).

type of fileARKfile name
TEIkt167nb66rkt167nb66r.xml
GIFARK kt167nb66rkt167nb66r_fig002.gif

1.1.2. Associated Content Files

All digital objects referenced as external entities by a TEI document must first be declared as entities at the beginning of the document. The entity declaration must give the object's entity reference and then define the reference using the object's system identifier. The system identifier must either be a system path relative to the document or, preferably, a URL. Ideally, to facilitate the preview and ingest of TEI objects, projects should make their documents and all associated content files (DTDS, images, pdfs, etc.) available via the web. Entity declarations must use the full object filename and the appropriate file format notation (e.g., GIF, JPG, or PDF).

<!ENTITY fig002 SYSTEM "http://www.server.domain/figures/kt167nb66r_fig002.gif" NDATA GIF>
...
<figure id="fig002" entity="fig002" rend="block">
        

1.1.3. Image Files

The CDL will accept image files in either the GIF or JPEG format. If possible, two derivative images should be created for each plate, figure, graphic, or other pictorial element that appears as a discrete element in the text. One of these derivatives should be at web resolution (72 ppi) and the same size as the figure in the printed text. The other image should be at higher resolution (300 ppi), again at original size, but not exceeding 768 pixels in width. In-line images, such as images of formulas, need only be provided in the low-resolution version. When necessary, images should be cropped and flipped for proper orientation for web display. For more information about the CDL's digital image standards, see the California Digital Library Digital Object Standard: Metadata, Content and Encoding and the California Digital Library Digital Image Format Standards .

The master version of the image (usually a TIFF) does not need to be submitted to CDL. However, projects interested in preserving master images for future use should consider submitting them to the UC Libraries Digital Preservation Repository, scheduled to launch in 2005.

If images are to be supplied in multiple resolutions, it will be necessary to encode this fact in a metadata record conforming to the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) schema.

<fileGrp ID="figures">
   <fileGrp ID="fig1">
      <file ID="fig1-m" ADMID="image-rights" USE="med-res" MIMETYPE="image/gif">
         <FLocat LOCTYPE="URL" 
                 xlink:href="/dynaxml/data/cj/kt109nc2cj/figures/fig1.gif"/>
      </file>
      <file ID="fig1-h" ADMID="image-rights" USE="hi-res" MIMETYPE="image/gif">
         <FLocat LOCTYPE="URL" 
                 xlink:href="/dynaxml/data/cj/kt109nc2cj/figures/fig1_h.gif"/>
      </file>
   </fileGrp>
   ...
            

Please consult the CDL ingest team before constructing a METS record for objects with multiple resolutions.

1.2. Invoking the CDL TEI Oral History DTD

All documents complying to these guidelines must explicitly invoke the CDL TEI Oral History DTD. To do this, declare the the TEI XML DTD and include the prose, figures, and linking tag sets. Then include the CDL user extension files and the entity "CDL.oh". Other external entity declarations should directly follow. (See the section on associated files for instructions on how to declare entities.)

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "../dtd/tei2.dtd" [
<!ENTITY % TEI.XML "INCLUDE">
<!ENTITY % TEI.prose "INCLUDE">
<!ENTITY % TEI.figures "INCLUDE">
<!ENTITY % TEI.linking "INCLUDE">

<!ENTITY % TEI.extensions.ent SYSTEM '../dtd/CDL_base.ent'>
<!ENTITY % TEI.extensions.dtd SYSTEM '../dtd/CDL_base.dtd'>
<!ENTITY % CDL.oh "INCLUDE">
. . .
<!ENTITY fig002 SYSTEM "http://www.server.domain/figures/kt167nb66r_fig002.gif" NDATA GIF>
. . . 
]>
            

[P4: 3.3]

1.3. Case Sensitivity

Please take note that XML is case-sensitive. All elements and attributes must be in the proper case to be valid. In the CDL TEI DTDs, all elements made up of compound words use the "camel case" format: e.g., "teiHeader" instead of "teiheader" or "TEIHEADER".

1.4. Character Encoding

Special characters in the text must be encoded using the Unicode Standard (UTF-8) and documents must include "UTF-8" as the value of the encoding attribute in the XML declaration.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
            

Special characters may be incorporated into a document directly as native Unicode (à) or may be represented by numeric character entities. These numeric character entities can take either the decimal (&#224;) or hexadecimal forms (&#x00E0;). Characters must not be represented using named character entities (&agrave;), with the exception of those specifically exempted in the XML 1.0 Specification. These must be used to avoid validation errors:

characterdescriptionUnicode
<less than&lt;
>greater than&gt;
&ampersand&amp;
            
                <p>The &lt;body&gt; element contains the main body of the text.</p>
                
            
            

Unicode named character entities must also be used within attribute values that need to contain single or double quotation marks or apostrophes. Use the following named character entities to avoid a parser error:

characterdescriptionUnicode
"quotation marks&quot;
'apostrophe or single quotation mark&apos;
<name reg="Ol&apos; Yeller">
            

As part of the CDL ingest process, documents will be checked for the correct Unicode character encoding and rejected if nonconforming characters or encodings are detected.

1.5. Hyphenation

When encoding the text, take care not to transcribe end-line hyphens that have been introduced into the text as a result of typesetting. Record all hyphens that are required by the source for the correct spelling of a compound word or phrase. Similarly, record all hyphens that are absolutely necessary to the meaning of an expression, e.g., hyphens in dates, formulas, code, etc.

1.6. Extent of Encoding

All sections of transcribed oral histories should be encoded, from title pages up to, but not including, colophons. Bastard titles or series titles, series lists, or frontispieces need not be included. The half title following the front matter sections may also be ignored. If a particular section is encoded but need not be displayed or accessed, it may be commented out of the XML file. A project's specific policies regarding what has been encoded and what left out, including policies adopted at the suggestion of these guidelines, must be articulated in the file's <editorialDecl> in the <teiHeader>.

1.7. Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) Record

The principal container for metadata at the CDL is a digital object's METS record. TEI documents should be submitted with as complete a METS record as possible. The CDL may generate METS records for projects that are unable to provide them. For more information, see The CDL METS Repository's web stie.

Chapter 2. Encoding Practice

Table of Contents

2.1. Root Element
2.1.1. <TEI.2>
2.2. Document Header
2.2.1. <teiHeader>
2.3. Text Structure
2.3.1. <text>
2.3.2. <group>
2.4. Front Matter
2.4.1. <front>
2.4.2. <titlePage>
2.4.3. Tables of Contents
2.5. Document Body
2.5.1. <body>
2.6. Back Matter
2.6.1. <back>
2.6.2. Appendices
2.6.3. Indexes
2.7. Divisions
2.7.1. <divn>
2.8. Division Headings, Openers, and Closers
2.8.1. <head>
2.8.2. <epigraph>
2.8.3. <opener>, <closer>
2.8.4. <byline>
2.8.5. <dateline>
2.9. Paragraphs
2.9.1. <p>
2.10. Page Breaks and Milestones
2.10.1. <pb>
2.10.2. <lb>
2.10.3. <milestone>
2.10.4. Tape Numbers, Reel Numbers, and Interview Dates
2.11. Typographical Phenomena and Formatting
2.11.1. <hi>
2.11.2. Nested <hi> Tags
2.11.3. <emph>
2.11.4. Alignment and Indention
2.12. Language Shifts
2.12.1. <foreign>
2.13. Quotations
2.13.1. <quote>
2.13.2. <cit>
2.14. Speech
2.14.1. <sp>
2.14.2. <speaker>
2.15. Verse
2.15.1. <divn> in Verse
2.15.2. <head> in Verse
2.15.3. <l>
2.15.4. <lg>
2.15.5. <closer>
2.16. Notes
2.16.1. <note>
2.16.2. In-line notes
2.16.3. Footnotes
2.16.4. Endnotes
2.16.5. <bibl> in <note>
2.17. Names, Dates, and Addresses
2.17.1. <name>
2.17.2. <date>
2.17.3. <address>, <addrLine>
2.18. Lists
2.18.1. <list>
2.18.2. Standard Ordered Lists
2.18.3. Non-standard Ordered Lists
2.18.4. <label>
2.19. Bibliographies
2.19.1. <bibl>, <listBibl>
2.19.2. <title> levels
2.19.3. <note> in Bibliographic Citations
2.20. Internal Links and Cross References
2.20.1. <ref>
2.21. External Objects
2.21.1. <xref>
2.22. Graphic Elements
2.22.1. Tables
2.22.2. <figure>
2.22.3. Formulas
2.23. Arbitrary Containers and Segments
2.23.1. <seg>
2.23.2. <ab>

2.1. Root Element

2.1.1. <TEI.2>

Each document should contain one and only one <TEI.2> root element. The id attribute is required and must contain the unique ARK assigned to the text in question.

<TEI.2 id="kt5n39n99v">
            

2.2. Document Header

Generally, the <teiHeader> for each document must conform to the practices described in detail in the California Digital Library Best Practice Guidelines for Encoding TEI Headers. Those guidelines cover both mandatory practices as well as suggested or optional practices. It is often sufficient to follow the instructions there for encoding the mandatory minimal header, as long as projects also meet additional requirements for oral histories outlined below. However, projects that will depend on the TEI header as their principal source of metadata (e.g., projects not providing their own METS records) are advised to use the recommendations for full header encoding. The instructions below include only specifications that modify or expand on the CDL TEI Header guidelines in some way. Therefore they cannot be used alone; all projects must consult the CDL TEI Header guidelines first.

2.2.1. <teiHeader>

The <teiHeader> should provide a relatively complete bibliographic record for both the electronic document and the original source document. The data that describe the electronic text should be encoded in the <fileDesc> section, while data that pertain to the source document should be encoded within the <sourceDesc> section (a subsection of <fileDesc>).

CDL search indexing and metadata collection depend on using a crosswalk that maps individual TEI header elements to their Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DC) equivalents. A detailed list of which elements in the TEI header map to which elements in DC can be found in Appendices A and B of the CDL TEI Header guidelines .

It is particularly important to note that every TEI document must make use of the <idno> element in the TEI header to record both the text's ARK and its local object identifier. Each must be given as the content of a separate <idno> element. The type attribute must be used to identify whether an "ARK" or "LOCAL" identifier is being given. These <idno> elements are essential to maintaining the link between the document and its various identities.

The sample TEI header below offers a general template for oral history headers. More detailed instructions on elements that require special attention follow.

<TEI.2 id="kt5n39n99v">
  <teiHeader type="CDL‑TEI:OH">
    <fileDesc>
      <titleStmt>
        <title>TITLE : electronic version</title> 
        <author>
          <name reg="LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME, DATES">FIRSTNAME LASTNAME</name>
        </author>
        <editor role="interviewer">
          <name reg="LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME, DATES">FIRSTNAME LASTNAME</name>
        </editor> 
        <respStmt>
          <resp>TEI Markup done by</resp>
          <name>ENCODER</name>
        </respStmt>
      </titleStmt>
      <extent>ca. FILESIZE [Kb/Mb]</extent>
      <publicationStmt>
        <pubPlace>INSTITUTION CITY</pubPlace>
        <publisher>INSTITUTION NAME</publisher>
        <date value="NORMALIZED DATE">ENCODING DATE</date>
        <idno type="ARK">CDL ARK</idno>
        <idno type="LOCAL">LOCAL ID</idno>
      </publicationStmt>
      <sourceDesc>
        <biblFull>
          <titleStmt>
            <title>TITLE</title> 
            <author>
              <name reg="LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME, DATES">FIRSTNAME LASTNAME</name>
            </author>
            <editor role="interviewer">
              <name reg="LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME, DATES">FIRSTNAME LASTNAME</name>
            </editor>
          </titleStmt>
          <extent>PAGINATION</extent>
          <publicationStmt>
            <publisher>INSTITUTION NAME</publisher> 
            <pubPlace>INSTITUTION CITY</pubPlace>
            <date value="NORMALIZED DATE">ORIGINAL PUBLICATION DATE</date>
            <idno type="callno">CALL NUMBER</idno>
          </publicationStmt> 
          <note type="abstract">BRIEF ABSTRACT</note>
        </biblFull>
      </sourceDesc>
    </fileDesc>
    <encodingDesc>
      <projectDesc><p>PROJECT STATEMENT</p></projectDesc>
      <editorialDecl>
        <p>EDITORIAL POLICY</p>
      </editorialDecl>
      <classDecl>
        <taxonomy id="AUTHORITY ID1">
          <bibl>
            <title>NAME OF AUTHORITY OR THESAURUS</title>
          </bibl>
        </taxonomy>
        <taxonomy id="AUTHORITY ID2">
          <bibl>
            <title>NAME OF AUTHORITY OR THESAURUS</title>
          </bibl>
        </taxonomy>
      </classDecl>
    </encodingDesc>
    <profileDesc>
      <creation>BACKGROUND OF INTERVIEW</creation>
      <langUsage>
        <p>The entire document is in </p>
        <language id="UNICODE CHART">LANGUAGE</language>
      </langUsage>
      <particDesc>
        <person role="interviewer" id="ID1">
          <persName reg="LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME">FIRSTNAME LASTNAME</persName>
        </person>
        <person role="interviewee" id="ID2">
          <persName reg="LASTNAME, FIRSTNAME">FIRSTNAME LASTNAME</persName>
        </person>
      </particDesc>
      <textClass>
        <keywords scheme="AUTHORITY ID1">
          <list>
            <item>SUBJECT OR HEADING</item>
            <item>SUBJECT OR HEADING</item> 
          </list>
        </keywords>
        <keywords scheme="AUTHORITY ID2">
          <list>
            <item>SUBJECT OR HEADING</item>
            <item>SUBJECT OR HEADING</item> 
          </list>
        </keywords>
      </textClass>
    </profileDesc>
  </teiHeader>
        

2.2.1.1. <fileDesc>

The <fileDesc> describes the TEI document in detail. For oral histories, the following elements within <fileDesc> require special attention not otherwise required or emphasized by the general CDL TEI Header guidelines.

2.2.1.1.1. <author>, <editor>

The <author> of an oral history is considered to be the interviewee. The interviewer should be encoded in the <editor> element with "interviewer" as the value of the role attribute.

<fileDesc>
  <titleStmt>
    <title>Kleiner Perkins, Venture Capital, and the Chairmanship of Genentech, 
    <date>1976‑1995</date> : electronic text.</title>
    <author>
      <name reg="Perkins, Thomas J., 1959-">Thomas J. Perkins</name>
    </author>
    <editor role="interviewer">
      <name reg="Hughes, Sally Smith">Sally Smith Hughes</name>
    </editor>
          
2.2.1.1.2. <note> in <biblFull>

Encoders are encouraged to encode a brief abstract of the document within <note> in <biblFull>. When an abstract is included the type attribute of <note> should be set to "abstract". The abstract can be useful for providing a very brief description of the oral history within browse lists and search results. When a catalog record exists for an oral history, the US MARC field 520 may be used as the source of such an abstract.

<note type="abstract">Interviews with individuals primarily in the federal and
state government, involved in the evacuation of Japanese‑Americans from California
during World War II. Photographs and copies of documentary material inserted and
appended.</note>
          

2.2.1.2. <profileDesc>

2.2.1.2.1. <creation>

A description of the environment and circumstances surrounding the interview(s) making up the oral history should be encoded within the <creation> element. Projects may include any additional information about the interviews they feel is important, such as the specific dates they were conducted, the locations where they were held, etc.

<creation>Interviews with the participants were conducted between 1971 and 1976 in Fullerton, CA.</creation>
          
2.2.1.2.2. <particDesc>

The mandatory <particDesc> should list all of the participants in the interviews. Each participant should be encoded within <person> with an appropriate role attribute of "interviewer", "interviewee", or "interviewer/editor". A unique id attribute is also required. The names should be recorded in direct order: i.e., "Firstname Lastname".

<particDesc>
  <person role="interviewer" id="fry">Amelia R. Fry </person>
  <person role="interviewee" id="rowe">James H. Rowe </person>
</particDesc>
          

Alternatively, encoders may opt to record more detailed information about the interview participants by using the <persName> element within <person>. When using <persName>, record the name of the person in direct order within the element's content and record the regularized form of the name in catalog entry form in the reg attribute. Such detail may be useful in providing alphabetical lists of all interviewees represented in large collections of oral histories, particularly when some oral histories include multiple interviewees.

<particDesc>
  <person role="interviewer" id="fry">
    <persName reg="Fry, Ameila R.">Amelia R. Fry</persName>
  </person>
  <person role="interviewee" id="rowe">
    <persName reg="Rowe, James H., 1941-">James H. Rowe</persName>
  </person>
</particDesc>
          

2.3. Text Structure

2.3.1. <text>

The <teiHeader> is directly followed by the mandatory <text> element, which fully contains the content of the text being encoded. The <text> element contains three subelements, <front> for front matter(e.g., title pages, prefaces, and introductions), <body> for the main body of the text, and <back> for back matter (e.g., endnotes and appendices). Of these three, only <body> is required.

<TEI.2 id="ARK>
   <teiHeader> . . . </teiHeader>
   <text>
      <front> . . . </front>       OPTIONAL
      <body>                       REQUIRED
         <div1> . . . </div1>
      </body>
      <back>                       OPTIONAL
         <div1> . . . </div1>
      </back>
   </text>
</TEI.2>
            

[P4: 7.1]

2.3.2. <group>

Groups of individual oral histories are sometimes packaged together within a single document. Normally, the <divn> element will be enought to create the structural divisions necessary for documents that can share a TEI header and thus may be encoded together in a single file. However, groups of oral histories that each need their own distinct title pages or other <front> sections may be encoded using the <group> element. Each oral history would then be encoded within a separate <text> element within <group>. Each <text> element can carry its own <front> section. Avoid using <teiCorpus>.

<TEI.2>
  <teiHeader></teiHeader>
  <text>
    <front>
      <titlePage></titlePage>
    </front>
    <group>
      <text>
        <front>
          <titlePage></titlePage>
        </front>
        <body></body>
        <back></back>
      </text>
      <text></text>
      <text></text>
      <text></text>
    ...
    </group>
  </text>
</TEI.2>
        

Because all of the oral histories within such a composite document share the same, single <teiHeader>, encoders must compile a single <particDesc> comprising all of the various interview participants from each of the individual interviews.

As with simple oral histories, also encode in <author> the names of each of the main interviewees.

<TEI.2 id="kt5n39n99v">
  <teiHeader type="CDL‑TEI:OH">
    <fileDesc>
      <titleStmt>
        <title>Builders and Sustainers of the Independent Living Movement in Berkeley : Volume I :
          electronic version</title>
        <author>
          <name reg="Leibowitz, Herbert">Herbert Leibowitz</name>
          <name reg="Lester, Mary">Mary Lester</name>
          <name reg="McMuldren, Bette">Bette McMuldren</name>
          <name reg="Stein, Kenneth">Kenneth Stein</name>
        </author>
        <editor role="interviewer">
          <name reg="Bonney, Sharon">Sharon Bonney</name>
          <name reg="O'Hara, Susan">Susan O'Hara</name>
          <name reg="Young, Jonathan">Jonathan Young</name>
        </editor>
        <respStmt>
       . . .
    <profileDesc>
      <langusage>
        <p>The entire document is in <label>English</label>
        </p>
      </langusage>
      <particDesc>
        <person role="Interviewer/editor" id="Bonney">
          <persName reg="Bonney, Sharon">Sharon Bonney</persName>
        </person>
        <person role="Interviewer/editor" id="OHara">
          <persName reg="O'Hara, Susan">Susan O'Hara</persName>
        </person>
        <person role="Interviewer/editor" id="Young">
          <persName reg="Young, Jonathan">Jonathan Young</persName>
        </person>
        <person role="Interviewee" id="Leibowitz">
          <persName reg="Leibowitz, Herbert">Herbert Leibowitz</persName>
        </person>
        <person role="Interviewee" id="Lester">
          <persName reg="Lester, Mary">Mary Lester</persName>
        </person>
        . . .
      </particDesc>
    </profileDesc>
  </teiHeader>
        

2.4. Front Matter

2.4.1. <front>

For oral histories, only the transcribed text of the oral history should be encoded within the <body> element. All other prefatory material such as an introduction, project descriptions, biographies, or other descriptive notes should be included as part of the <front> element (for front matter) or the <back> element (for back matter). With the exception of <titlePage>, distinct sections of front matter should be encoded within individual <divn>s. Note that <front> should be reserved for containing prefatory material that is relevant to the entire body text as a whole. Other section titles or attributive information that happens to occur at the beginning of the document but refers to only a portion of the document (e.g., the title of the first poem in a short collection of poems) should be contained within appropriate elements within the appropriate <divn>. For a full list of attribute types available for any <divn>, see the section on divisions.

Introductory Materials

Preface to Suffragists Oral History Project

The Suffragists Oral History Project was designed to tape record with the leaders of the woman's suffrage movement in order to document their activities in behalf of passage of the Nineteenth Amendment and their continuing careers as leaders of movements for welfare and labor reform, world peace, and the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. Because the existing documentation of the suffrage struggle indicates a need for additional material on the campaign of the National Woman's Party, the contribution of this small but highly active group has been the major focus of the series.

<front>
  <div1 type="introduction">
    <head>Introductory Materials</head>
    <div2 type="projdesc">
      <head>Preface to Suffragists Oral History Project</head>
      <p>The Suffragists Oral History Project was designed to tape record interviews with the
      leaders of the woman's suffrage movement in order to document their activities in behalf 
      of passage of the Nineteenth Amendment and their continuing careers as leaders of movements
      for welfare and labor reform, world peace, and the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.
      Because the existing documentation of the suffrage struggle indicates a need for additional
      material on the campaign of the National Woman's Party, the contribution of this small but
      highly active group has been the major focus of the series.</p></div2>
   </div1>
    </front>
        

2.4.2. <titlePage>

The <titlePage> is encoded directly in <front>. Do not encode a <titlePage> unless the oral history itself contains a formal title page. Title pages may often possess a number of formatting peculiarities, such as specific alignment, fonts, incidental images, etc. It is not necessary to attempt to reproduce the look or layout of the title page exactly. It is often enough to convey to users what textual information they title page contains and the order in which the information appears.

2.4.2.1.  <docTitle>, <titlePart>

The <docTitle> element is required within <titlePage>. Use <titlePart> within <docTitle> to encode individual formal titles, subtitles, and other subsidiary title parts as they appear on the title page. If there is more than one <titlePart> given, projects must use the type attribute to classify the various <titlePart>s. Supported type attribute values are "main," "subtitle," "alternate," and "abbreviated." Any <titlePart> without a type attribute will be considered and formatted as a "main" title. If there is more than one <titlePart>, then give the type attribute is mandatory for all of them.

<docTitle>
      <titlePart type="main">Inventory of furniture and art.</titlePart>
</docTitle>
                    

2.4.2.2.  <docAuthor>

Record here the names of authors and others responsible for the intellectual content of the document as they appear on the title page. Each <docAuthor> element will be displayed by the stylesheet on a single line. Therefore, projects may choose to encode multiple names within a single <docAuthor> if it is desired that they display on a single line, or may choose to repeat <docAuthor> if the names should be displayed on separate lines.

Projects may use the <name> element to surround each author's name. This practice is optional, but is particularly useful when more than one name has been encoded in a single <docAuthor>. The <name> element also allows projects to regularize names using the reg attribute.

In the content of <docAuthor> and <name>, names should be recorded as they appear on the title page. Do not attempt to reorder the name into catalog entry form or use the form of the name as it may appear in a name authority file. Again, the reg attribute may be used to correlate a name to an authority.

<docAuthor>
  <name>Tom Jennings </name> and 
  <name>Julia Hoffman, MD</name>
</docAuthor>
          

OR:

<docTitle>
  <titlePart type="main">Canine morphotypes and physiology</titlePart>
</docTitle>
<docAuthor><name reg="Jennings, Tom">Tom Jennings</name></docAuthor>
<docAuthor><name reg="Hoffman, Julia">Julia Hoffman, MD</name></docAuthor>
          

2.4.2.3. <byline>

Authors are frequently listed on the title page accompanied by a more explicit description of their role in the creation of the document; e.g., "foreword by" or simply "by." In such cases, encode both the <docAuthor>s and their statements of responsibility inside an encompassing <byline> element.

<docTitle>
  <titlePart type="main">Canine morphotypes and physiology</titlePart>
</docTitle>
<byline>By <docAuthor>Tom Jennings </docAuthor> and 
<docAuthor>Julia Hoffman, MD</docAuthor></byline>
          

2.4.2.4. <docImprint>, <pubPlace> , <publisher>

Record the remaining publication information in <docImprint>. Within <docImprint>, use <pubPlace> and <publisher> in any order and as often as necessary to record every place of publication and every publisher respectively.

<docImprint>
  <pubPlace> Collinsport:</pubPlace>
  <publisher> Stoddard and Associates, 1993.</publisher>
</docImprint>
          

2.4.2.5. <docDate>

Record copyright and publication dates within <docDate> in <docImprint>. Do not include any associated text or symbols such as the word "copyright" or the symbol "©". Such words and symbols may be kept in the surrounding <docImprint> element. A regularized form of the date may be encoded in ISO 8601:2000 5.2.1.1 standard form (e.g., YYYY-MM-DD) in the value attribute of the <docDate> element. This is useful if document dates need to be consistently indexed.

&lt;docImprint&gt;New York Publishing Company &#xA9;<docDate value="1971.00.00"> 1971.</docDate>
          

[P4: 7.5]

2.4.2.6. epigraph

Record quotations that may appear on the title page in the <epigraph> element. Unattributed epigraphs may be recorded in a <quote> element within <epigraph>. Attributed quotations should be encoded in <cit> within <epigraph>. Within <cit>, the quotation is surrounded by <quote>, while the attribution is given inside <bibl>. (See the section on quotations fur further information.)

<epigraph rend="italic">
  <quote>The price we pay one day may make us weep.</quote>
</epigraph>
                            
                            
<epigraph rend="italic">
  <cit>
    <quote>No man is an island, but some men are peninsulas.</quote>
    <bibl>Joe Haskell</bibl>
  </cit>
</epigraph> 
          

2.4.3. Tables of Contents

For every TEI document, the CDL will automotically create a navigational table of contents using the <head>s encoded throughout the document. Projects may therefore choose to forgo encoding the table of contents in a source document. However, projects wishing to retain the original table of contents, which will often differ from that which would be produced by collecting the document's <head>s, may encode the original in a <divn type="contents">. The table of contents is normally encoded as a <list>, using <ref>s to link each entry to its proper section. (See the section on lists for information on encoding lists. See the section on internal linking for more information on <ref>s.)

Contents
Upward  . . . . . . 1
January . . . . . . 4
Unto This Present . 7

<div1 type="contents">
  <head>Contents</head>
  <list type="simple">
    <item>Upward<ref target="p1" type="pageref" rend="align right">1</ref></item>
    <item>January<ref target="p4" type="pageref" rend="align right">4</ref></item>
    <item>Unto this Present<ref target="p7" type="pageref" rend="align right">7</ref></item>
  </list>
</div1>
            

2.5. Document Body

2.5.1. <body>

Containing the main body of the text, the mandatory <body> element is further subdivided into a hierarchy of nested divisions beginning with a mandatory <div1>. A new <divn> should be used for each major section of the interview as organized in the oral history, e.g., each time period being discussed or each career held by the interviewee. Use the type attribute in each <divn> to describe the type of section being encoded. For a full list of the types available, please see the section on divisions.

PERSONS PRO, PERSONS CON

(Date of Interview: March 1, 1971)

Attorney General Biddle

Rowe: I re-read some of the Grodzins book last night, and most of the things he says I agree with, and I just think he says them a lot better.

Fry: Well, the topics I have in mind more or less supplement what Grodzins says. But I want to turn it over here to our expert who was there on the scene.

            <div1 type="chapter">
  <head>PERSONS PRO, PERSONS CON</head>
  <milestone n="(Date of Interview: March 1, 1971)" unit="interview"/>
    <div2 type="section">
      <head>Attorney General Biddle</head>
      <sp who="rowe">
        <speaker>Rowe</speaker>
        <p>I re-read some of the Grodzins book last night, and most of the things he says I agree
        with, and I just think he says them a lot better.</p>
      </sp>
      <sp who="fry">
        <speaker>Fry</speaker>
        <p>Well, the topics I have in mind more or less supplement what Grodzins says. But I want to
        turn it over here to our expert who was there on the scene.</p>
      </sp>
            
          

2.6. Back Matter

2.6.1. <back>

The optional <back> element may contain any number of <divn> elements containing advertisements, afterwords, indexes, bibliographies, appendices, or other sections that appear at the end of the document after the main body of the text. Use the type attribute in each <divn> to describe the type of back matter being encoded. For a full list of the types of <divn>s available in <back>, please see the section on divisions.

<back>
   <div1 type="appendix">
      <head>Photographs</head>
      <p>The author was a prolific photographer who. . .
      </p>
   </div1>

            

2.6.2. Appendices

The <divn type="appendix>> element should be used within <back> for back matter sections collected together under a common heading, usually "Appendix".

<back>
  <div1 type="appendix">
    <head>Appendix</head>
    <div2 type="biography">
      <head>Niels Reimers Curriculum Vitae</head>
      ...
    </div2>
    <div2 type="section">
      <head>Stanford Office of Technology Licensing web page.</head>
      ...
    </div2>
    <div2 type="chronology">
      <head>Cohen/Boyer Patent Chronology.</head>
      ...
    </div2>
  </div1>
        

2.6.3. Indexes

The <divn type="index"> element should be used to encode indexes in <back>. Indexes should be encoded as lists or nested lists as appropriate. (Note that indexes encoded as lists will be displayed using the standard indention used for lists.) Page numbers in indexes should be tagged as <ref>s with target attributes containing the unique ids of the pages being referenced. (See the section on internal linking for more information.)

Example:

Index

[The numbers below represent page numbers in the volume. Clicking on the hyperlink will take you to the top of that page.]

  • Abbott, Grace, 137, 142, 143, 144

    • personality, 116, 138, 148

  • Acheson, Dean, 102

    • administration:

      • bureau autonomy, 220‑224

      • by presidential appointees (Puerto Rico), 120-122, 124-126

      • educational process, 73, 81, 87, 198‑199

<div1 type="index">
  <head>Index</head>
  <p>[The numbers below represent page numbers in the volume. 
    Clicking on the hyperlink will take you to the top of that page.]</p>
  <list type="simple">
  <item>Abbott, Grace, <ref target="p137">137</ref>, <ref target="p142">142</ref>, 
  <ref target="p143">143</ref>, <ref target="p144">144</ref> 
	  <list>
	    <item>personality, <ref target="p116">116</ref>, <ref target="p138">138</ref>, 
	    <ref target="p148">148</ref></item></list></item>
      <item>Acheson, Dean, <ref target="p102">102</ref></item>
      <item>administration:
	      <list>
	        <item>bureau autonomy, <ref target="p220">220‑224</ref></item>
	        <item>by presidential appointees (Puerto Rico), <ref target="p120">120‑122</ref>, 
	        <ref target="p124">124‑126</ref></item>
	        <item>educational process, <ref target="p73">73</ref>, <ref target="p81">81</ref>, 
	        <ref target="p87">87</ref>, <ref target="p198">198‑199</ref></item>
        

2.7. Divisions

2.7.1. <divn>

The<front>, <body>, and <back> elements in the document must use a hierarchical structure of numbered <divn> elements to identify their significant divisions. The elements <body> and <back> are both required to contain at least one <div1>. No unnumbered <div> or <div0> elements are permitted.

Each <divn> element throughout the text must have a unique id attribute to serve as an indentifier. If necessary these can be added automatically on ingest by the CDL, depending on the project's submission agreement with the CDL.

All <divn>s must also contain a type attribute describing the kind of division being encoded. Every attempt should be made to supply the most specific and consistent type values possible for <divn> elements.

<div1 id="ch01" type="chapter">
  <div2 id="ss1.1" type="ss1">
    <div3 id="ss2.1" type="ss2">
      <div4 id="ss3.1" type="ss3">
          

The following type attribute values are available for oral histories. Please feel free to create other type values as needed, remembering to document them in the <editorialDecl>. Please note that the types listed below may be used for <divn>s in <front>, <body>, or <back> as necessary.

For correspondence:

valuetype of division
preface preface
introduction introduction
acknowledgments acknowledgments
projdesc project description
abstract abstract
dedication dedication
epigraph epigraph that appears on its own page
legal legal/copyright information
contents table of contents
interviewerbiog interviewer biography
interviewdesc interview history/description
biography biography/vitae
chronology chronology
essay essay
letter letter
part part; use only if segment is identified explicitly as a part; otherwise use chapter
chapter chapter
section section; should only be used to subdivide chapters and other more specific divisions. For example a biography may be divided chronologically, or may be divided into the various careers and positions occupied by the interviewee. Encode the top-level biography as type="biography" but each subsequent lower division as "section".
text generic text; used to describe an indistinct prose section
index index
bibliography bibliography
appendix appendix
glossary glossary
endnotes endnotes
afterword afterword
guide tape Guide
postscript postscript

[P4: 7.1.2]

2.8. Division Headings, Openers, and Closers

Significant textual divisions often open with a heading identifying the content of the division. They may also begin and end with phrases such as bylines, epigraphs, datelines, and the like.

2.8.1. <head>

The <head> element is used to record division headings, such as chapter or section titles, and is used by the system for allow users to navigate easily from one section to another.

Specific guidelines are supplied below regarding where <head>s may or may not appear. Generally, record headings as they appear in the source document.

Headings may be supplied by the encoder if they are not available in the text but are necessary in order to provide a way of navigating to a particular division. Headings may also be supplied in cases in which a <head> is necessary to conform to rules about when they must appear.

Supplied headings should be enclosed in square brackets or signalled by some other convention expressly detailed in the <editorialDecl> of the <teiHeader>.

Title transcribed from text:

<head>Chapter 4. The Ghost Returns to Middlington Manor.</head>
        

Title supplied by encoder:

          <head>[Segment 2]</head>
        

It is good practice to provide a <head> tag for all major textual divisions. In any case, the following rules must be strictly followed:

  1. If any <divn> at any level contains a <head>, then all of its sibling <divn>s at the same level must also contain a <head>. Therefore, if any <div1> uses a head, all <div1>s in the text must do so. If any <div2> contains a <head>, all other <div2>s nested with that <div2> in its parent <div1> must also contain <head>s, etc.

  2. If a <divn> at any level is left without a <head>, then any subordinate <divn>s below the headless <divn> are not permitted to have <head>s. Conversely, if any subordinate <divn> contains a head, the parent <divn> must also contain a <head>.

The following example is incorrect because one of the <divn> descendants contains a <head> but none of its ancestors contain one. If the rules are strictly followed, the single <div4> with a <head> forces all other <div>s in the tree to contain <head>s:

<div1>
  <div2></div2>
  <div2></div2>
  <div2>
    <div3></div3>
    <div3>
      <div4><head></head></div4>
    </div3>
  </div2>
  <div2></div2>
</div1>
          

Multiple <head> elements may be differentiated using the type attribute (e.g., "subtitle" for a subtitle).

<div1 id="ch01">
  <head type="main"> . . . </head>
  <head type="subtitle"> . . . </head>
        

2.8.2. <epigraph>

Epigraphs contain quotations, anonymous or attributed, appearing at the start of a section, chapter, or other major division. They should be enclosed within the <epigraph> element. An epigraph appearing on a page by itself should be encoded in <epigraph> within a <divn type="epigraph">.

Within <epigraph>, attributed epigraphs should be enclosed entirely within the <cit> element, with <quote> containing the quoted passage and <bibl> containing the attribution. Within <quote>, use <p>, <lg>, or other block elements as necessary.

<epigraph>
  <cit>
    <quote>"I believe that any other ideal is impracticable and is a collision with human destiny
    and God."</quote>
    <bibl>Attributed to George Herron.</bibl>
  </cit>
</epigraph>
 
                        
<epigraph>
   <cit>
      <quote>
            <lg>
             <l>`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves</l>
             <l>Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:</l>
             <l>All mimsy were the borogoves,</l>
             <l>And the mome raths outgrabe.</l>
             </lg>
      </quote>
        <bibl>"Jabberwocky"--Lewis Carroll</bibl>
   </cit> 
</epigraph>
          

Within <epigraph>, unattributed epigraphs should simply be encoded within <quote>, with <p> and other block elements used as necessary to contain the quoted passage. There is no need to use <cit> for unattributed epigraphs.

<div1 id="ch01" type="chapter" n="1">
   <head>Chapter 1</head>
   <epigraph>
      <quote>
         <p>I pity the man who can travel from Dan to Beersheba<p>
      </quote>
   </epigraph>

<epigraph>
  <quote rend="italic">
    <lg>
      <l>What you have seen to love in me</l>
      <l>I do not know.</l>
      <l>What I have seen to love in thee</l>
      <l>No word can show. </l>
      <l>But word or knowledge, dear, we lay aside.</l>
      <l>We need them not for compass or for guide.</l>
      <l>By love we go.</l>
    </lg>
  </quote>
</epigraph>
        

2.8.3. <opener>, <closer>

Projects encoding correspondence or other letter-like documents may wish to use <opener> and <closer> (and other elements that are allowed within them such as <salute>, <signed>, and <dateline>) in order to take advantage of the additional structuring they provide. They allow for certain text features that need to be identified for analytical or formatting purposes--such as, addresses, datelines, salutations, signatures, or postscripts--to be grouped neatly at the beginning or end of <divn>s. Because these elements can require fairly heavy analytic encoding and introduce additional encoding restrictions, they are not required. In fact, they are discouraged for projects that do not need to perform a high level of analysis with their encoding. Projects wishing to use <opener> and <closer> must consult TEI P4 for more detailed instructions on their use. The letter containing the following text could be encoded using different structural hierarchies, depending on what text features the project wishes to make distinct:

From the Desk of Martin Snope

The Willows

Chicago, Illinois

June 14, 1952

Dear Isabella,

I have arrived home at last and will not leave again until August.

Encoded with <opener>:

    <text>
<body>
<div1 type="letter">
<opener>
From the Desk of Martin Snope
<address><addrLine>The Willows</addrLine>
<addrLine>Chicago, Illinois</addrLine>
<address>
<dateline>June 14, 1952</dateline>
<salute>Dear Isabella,</salute>
</opener>
<p>I have arrived home at last . . . </p></div1>

Encoded without <opener>:

<text>
<body>
<div1 type="letter">
<p>
From the Desk of Martin Snope
<address><addrLine>The Willows</addrLine>
<addrLine>Chicago, Illinois</addrLine>
<address>
</p>
<p>June 14, 1952</p>
<p>Dear Isabella,</p>
<p>I have arrived home at last . . . </p></div1>

2.8.4. <byline>

Bylines are formal statements of responsibility, which may sometimes be found near the top of a division (usually after a <head>) and sometimes at the bottom. Do not use <bylines> to record attributive information for quoted passages; use instead the <cit>/<quote>/<bibl> structure described in the section on quotations. Do not use <byline> for the attribution of correspondence, which is normally signed (<signed>). Do not use <byline> when a more complete bibliographical citation is present; in that case <bibl> is normally more appropriate. (See the section on bibliographic citation.) Take care not to confuse the the use of <byline> and similar elements within <divn>s with their use within formal <titlePage>s.

<div1 type="introduction">
  <head>Introduction</head> 
  <byline>by Sherna Gluck</byline>
  <p>The following interviews with Sylvie Thygeson represent two distinct interviews ...

                            
<div2 type="essay">
  <head>In the Public Interest——Jeannette Rankin</head>
  <bibl>by <author>Ralph Nadar</author>
    (<title rend="italic">The New Republic Feature Syndicate</title>
    <biblScope>Number 33</biblScope>
    <date>September 11, 1972</date>)
  </bibl>
  <p>WASHINGTON——A few weeks ago we sent a questionnaire ...
        

2.8.5. <dateline>

Use <dateline> to encode a place and date associated with the creation of the document. Encode the place name directly within <dateline>, but use <date> to enclose the date itself within <dateline>. When additional address information is available, use <address> within <dateline>. (See the section on addresses.) As with <byline>, do not use <dateline> to encode more complete bibliographic citations. Use <bibl> instead.

Example:

<div1 type="chapter">
  <head>Prologue</head>
  <dateline>March 1945: Shensi Province, China</dateline>
  <p>A dull orange haze, the first light of dawn, ...
        

2.9. Paragraphs

2.9.1. <p>

The paragraph is the fundamental organizational unit for all prose texts. Paragraphs are encoded within <p>s, which, by default, begin a new line and are displayed with the first line indented. To dictate a different display, use the rend attribute in <p>. Please see the section on alignment and indention for a list of available rend values.

                
<p>In another moment down went Alice after it, never once
considering how in the world she was to get out again.</p>               
                    
                

[P4: 6.1]

2.10. Page Breaks and Milestones

Milestones are empty elements (<lb>, <milestone>, <pb>) that serve a function in the text analogous to the one mileposts serve on a road. They are used to mark significant points in the text, often beginnings or endings of sections, that exist outside the hierarchy of <divn> containers.

2.10.1. <pb>

Projects must use the empty <pb> element to mark the beginning of each physical page of the source document (including the first page). The <pb> element should be placed at the beginning of each page, but entirely within any overlapping <divn>. Never encode <pb>s between <divn> elements. All such interstitial page breaks should be encoded as if they belonged to the nearest subsequent <divn>, before the <head> element. If a page break occurs in the middle of a smaller block element (e.g., <p>), it can simply be encoded there.

If desired, the n attribute of <pb> may be used to record page numbers as they appear in the source document so that the system can subsequently render those page numbers for display. Do not supply page numbers if they do not exist in the source document. Page numbers should be recorded using the n attribute of the <pb> element at the beginning of the page, regardless of where the number appears on the document.

<div1 type="chapter" n="I" id="ch01">
  <pb n="1" id="p1"/>
  <head>Introduction</head>

          

If a page number is given, the id attribute is also highly recommended. If anything is linked to the page breaks (such as an index entry or table of contents that refers to pages), the id attribute is required.

<p>of the Sea, <ref target="p1" type="pageref">1</ref></p>
. . .
<pb n=1 id="p1"/>
          

2.10.2. <lb>

The <lb> element marks the start of a new line. Use this element only when it is absolutely essential to preserve line breaks as they appear in the source document. (Note that the <lb> tag is intended for producing line breaks in prose only. the <l> element must be used to encode lines of verse.)

<p>When I approached the door, I saw that it's knocker yawned as a great
<lb/>O
<lb/>before me, impossibly heavy. . . </p>
          

2.10.3. <milestone>

The empty <milestone> element may be used to mark significant boundaries between sections of text that are neither page breaks nor normal divisions. For instance, it may be used to encode the decorative section breaks common to monographs. The unit attribute is required to describe the kind of break being marked. The n attribute must be used to record any characters or symbols that are used to create the boundary.

<milestone unit="endPart" n="&2766;"/>
                        
<milestone unit="endPart" n="****"/>
          

[P4: 6.9.3]

2.10.4. Tape Numbers, Reel Numbers, and Interview Dates

Many oral histories do not include chapters dividing the interview into multiple intellectual divisions and subdivisions. However, most oral histories do contain references to the date an interview begins, the number of the tape or reel it was recorded on, and the tape side. In such cases, do not be tempted to create an artifical structure of <div>s and <head>s using those references. These references can be considered arbitrary indexes in the text, similar to page numbers. Therefore, although these may often be formatted as headings in the text, they should not be encoded as <div>s with <head>s. Instead, encode these pieces of information as the value of the n attribute in the <milestone> element.

Example:

I Broussard Family Moves from Louisiana to California, 1945

Interview 1, June 27, 1991

Tape 1, Side A

Morris:

We usually start at the beginning. You were born in Louisiana?

Broussard:

Yes, in Lake Charles.

<div1 type="chapter">
  <head>I Broussard Family Moves from Louisiana to California, 1945</head>
  <milestone n="Interview 1, June 27, 1991" unit="interview"/>
  <milestone n="Tape 1, Side A" unit="tape"/>
  <sp who="Morris">
    <speaker>Morris</speaker>
    <p>We usually start at the beginning. You were born in Louisiana?</p></sp> 
  <sp who="Broussard">
    <speaker>Broussard </speaker> 
    <p>Yes, in Lake Charles.</p></sp>
          

2.11. Typographical Phenomena and Formatting

2.11.1. <hi>

Record font changes and other typographical highlighting with the <hi> element. Use the required rend attribute to record the type of font shift employed in the source document. Unless otherwise stated in the <editorialDecl>, the value of the rend attribute must convey and ultimately display (if possible) the actual marking in the source document. In other words, do not use <hi> to introduce editorial changes to a text's typesetting.

When text with special formatting has already been tagged for other structure or content, and when the special formatting is consistent, the rend value can be applied directly to the encompassing tag. For example, if the contents of <name> are underscored, or if the contents of <p> are entirely in bold font, then the rend values of those tags can be defined accordingly. Because rend is a global attribute, it is available for all TEI elements. When special formatting does not coincide perfectly with an encompassing tag (as is often the case), <hi> is used to surround the special text.

          <p><hi rend="underline">Where</hi> did he go?</p>
                        
          <head rend="smallcaps">The Last Stand</head> 
          

The CDL supports the following rend values for display:

valuedisplay
normal standard font for the document; unemphasized, unhighlighted text; should be used to format unemphasized text in the middle of an emphasized passage
mono mono-spaced font, e.g., Courier
italic italics
smallcaps small caps
bold bold
bolder extra bold
lighter extra light
underline underscored
overline written with a line drawn above the text
strikethrough strikethrough
subscript below the baseline of standard text
superscript above the baseline of standard text
hide do not display

Projects requiring more specialized display may include syntax from the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) standard in the rend attribute.

    
<p rend ="color: white; background-color: red">This text will be white on a red background.</p>

2.11.2. Nested <hi> Tags

When multiple rend values are required for a single element, repeat <hi> elements as necessary. For instance, in the following example, the word "wow" is rendered in both bold and italics as "wow" .

        <hi rend="bold"><hi rend="italic">wow!</hi></hi>

Remember that once a rend value has been applied to a tag, the display is applied to the entire contents of that tag unless it is explicitly negated by another tag. For instance, the tagging

        <hi rend="bold">w<hi rend="italic">ow!</hi></hi> 

will produce the word "wow ".

On the other hand, the tagging

        <hi rend="bold">w<hi rend="normal"><hi rend="italic">ow!</hi></hi></hi> 

will produce the word "w ow".

2.11.3. <emph>

If desired, the <emph> element may be used instead of <hi> to mark a typographic shift that explicitly conveys emphasis rather than simply a change in typography or other meaning. In the following example, the word "very" is underscored to provide emphasis.

        <hi rend="bold">Once Upon a Time</hi> Chicken Little decided to build a <emph 
rend="underline">very</emph> big house.
 

The same rend values available for <hi> are also available for <emph>, as they are for all rend attributes in any element.

[P4: 6.3.2.2]

2.11.4. Alignment and Indention

Alignment and indention of text can also be represented using the rend attribute in <hi> or any other encompassing tag. Available rend attribute values for alignment are:

valuedisplay
left justify left, ragged right, initial indent
center center
right justify right, ragged left, initial indent
justify fully justify, initial indent
indent standard paragraph indent
hang hanging indent
blockindent full block indent
blockquote full block indent used for quotes (<quote>)
noindent no initial indent

Projects requiring more precise alignment of text may also use CSS language within the rend attribute to describe the alignment required.

    [4em hanging indent]
<p rend ="text-indent: -4em; margin-left: 4em"> 

Note that all <p>s are flush left with an initial indent by default, so any paragraph that should not be indented must be given a rend value of "noindent".

2.12. Language Shifts

2.12.1. <foreign>

Use the <foreign> element to tag text that appears in a language that will require the use of a different character set or writing direction. The lang attribute must contain the name of the applicable language as given in the <language> element of the TEI header. Note that the language must be declared in the TEI header in order for this attribute to function. The enclosed text should be input using the appropriate Unicode character entitities. (See the section on character encoding.)


   <profileDesc>
  <langUsage>
    <language id="Greek">(Range: 0370-03FF)</language>
  </langUsage>
. . .
     <foreign lang="Greek">&#0371;&#0372;&#0399;</foreign>
                

ųŴƏ

2.13. Quotations

Quotations that are set apart from the rest of the text by quotation marks need not be specially encoded. Quotation marks are normally left intact in the text and, if possible, recorded in the form that they appear (i.e., straight or curly, single or double). (The exceptions to this rule are quotations marks around <title>s in bibliographic citations that use the level attribute to provide their formatting [see the section on bibliographies].)

Quotations that employ formatting beyond the simple use of quotation marks must be specifically tagged. Simple block quotes containing only one paragraph may be recorded using <p>.

<p rend="blockindent">It was seen from the beginning of the study . . . </p>
      

2.13.1. <quote>

Quotes comprising multiple paragraphs or lines of verse should be enclosed in the <quote> element, with individual paragraphs contained in <p>s and lines of verse contained in <lg> and <l>.

      
<quote rend="blockquote">
  <p>It was seen from the beginning that the study . . . </p>
  . . .
</quote>
                        
 <quote>
    <lg>
      <l>What you have seen to love in me</l>
      <l>I do not know.</l>
      <l>What I have seen to love in thee</l>
      <l>No word can show. </l>
      <l>But word or knowledge, dear, we lay aside.</l>
      <l>We need them not for compass or for guide.</l>
      <l>By love we go.</l>
    </lg>
  </quote>  
          

2.13.2. <cit>

If desired, quotations that are accompanied by citations may be encoded using <cit>. Enclose both the quote and the citation within <cit>. The text of the quote should be further enclosed within <q> and <p> as necessary, and the bibliographic citation should be further enclosed within <bibl>.

<cit>
   <quote>
      <l>Since I can do no good because a woman</l>
      <l>Reach constantly at something that is near it.</l>
   </quote>
   <bibl>
      <title>The Maid's Tragedy</title>
      <author>Beaumont and Fletcher</author>
   </bibl>
</cit>
                        
<cit>
      <quote>
            <lg>
             <l>`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves</l>
             <l>Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:</l>
             <l>All mimsy were the borogoves,</l>
             <l>And the mome raths outgrabe.</l>
             </lg>
      </quote>
        <bibl>"Jabberwocky"--Lewis Carroll</bibl>
 </cit> 
        

[P4: 6.3.3]

2.14. Speech

2.14.1. <sp>

The <sp> element is used to contain instances of transcribed speech. Each distinct section of speech along with its attribution should be encoded within <sp>. Within <sp>, use <p> and other block elements as necessary to format and contain the contents of the speech.

                <sp>
<speaker>Godwin</speaker>
  <p>And what made you finally decide to leave that job?</p>
</sp>
<sp>
 <speaker>Fillmore</speaker>
 <p>You mean the first time or the final time?</p>
</sp> 

The <sp< element may also carry an optional who attribute that gives the identity of the speaker. The value of who must refer to the id of a person previously identified in a list of interview participants in the TEI header (<person> in <partiDesc> in <profileDesc>). See the section on creating a <particDesc>.

<profileDesc>
  <particDesc>
    <person id="LaBerge" role="interviewer/editor">
      <persName reg="LaBerge, Germaine">Germaine LaBerge</persName>
    </person>
    <person id="Bouche" role="interviewee">
      <persName reg="Bouché, Brieuc">Brieuc Bouché</persName>
    </person>
  </particDesc>
...
  <sp who="LaBerge">
    <speaker>LaBerge</speaker>
    <p>Why don't we start with where you were born, and a little bit about your family background?</p>
  </sp>
  <sp who="Bouche">
    <speaker>Bouché</speaker>
    <p>Yes. How much detail do you want? Full detail or just very sketchy?</p>
  </sp>          
          

2.14.2. <speaker>

The <speaker> element is used within <sp> as a specialized form of heading giving the name of the speaker responsible for the spoken words. Encode the name of the speaker as it is given in the source document. Do not supply a name if one does not appear in the source text. The content of <speaker> is displayed in bold and flush left on a line preceding the text of the speech.

<sp who="LaBerge">
    <speaker>LaBerge</speaker>
    <p>Why don't we start with where you were born, and a little bit about your family background?</p>
  </sp>
  <sp who="Bouche">
    <speaker>Bouché</speaker>
    <p>Yes. How much detail do you want? Full detail or just very sketchy?</p>
  </sp>          
    

is displayed as:

LaBerge

Why don't we start with where you were born, and a little bit about your family background?

Bouché

Yes. How much detail do you want? Full detail or just very sketchy?

Projects that require a different kind of styling for the display of speaker names should use the rend attribute to override the default styling imposed by <speaker>.

[P4: 10.2.2]

2.15. Verse

2.15.1. <divn> in Verse

Generally, verse or verse fragments in a text should be enclosed within a separate <divn> element with an identifying type attribute. Projects must enclose a poem in a <divn> if they wish to attach a searchable, indexable title to the poem using <head> or if they wish to encode a <closer> at the end of the poem. The most common type attribute values for verse are:

verse
poem
sonnet
drama
free-verse
song

If projects do not wish to enclose a poem within a separate <divn>, they may simply enclose its lines using the mandatory <lg> element. (See below.)

2.15.2. <head> in Verse

Projects may use the <head> element for all titles, subtitles, etc., for verse encoded within a <divn>, bearing in mind the rules for using <head> within <divn>. When more than one <head> is required, use the type attribute to describe the different type of headings or titles being applied. Any <head> element for verse that does not have a type attribute will be considered a "main" title.

      
<head type="main">
<head type="subtitle">
<head type="dedication">
        

2.15.3. <l>

Individual lines of verse must be surrounded by the <l> tag. Lines that are numbered may use the n attribute to encode the line number. Use the rend attribute as necessary to provide proper indention.

<l n="5" rend="indent">
      

2.15.4. <lg>

Regardless of whether verse is contained within its own <divn>, groups of lines must be encoded within the <lg> element, with each individual line also encoded in the <l> element. The <lg> tag is used to identify groups of lines that carry coherent poetic structure (i.e., function as a formal unit, such as a stanza) within a poem. The type of structure may be identified with the type attribute. Some available type values are:

stanza
verse
paragraph
couplet
quatrain
fragment
refrain

The value "fragment" should be used for line groups that do not carry poetic structure.

      
<div1 type="poem">
                  <lg type="stanza">
      <l>How doth the little crocodile</l> 
<l>Improve his shining tail,</l> 
<l>And pour the waters of the Nile</l> 
<l>On every golden scale!</l>
       </lg>
   </div1>
          

The following text could be tagged in different ways:

`Repeat, "You are Old, Father William,"' said the Caterpillar. 
                 Alice folded her hands, and began:--
                 `You are old, Father William,' the young man said,            
                          `And your hair has become very white; 
                  And yet you incessantly stand on your head- 
                            Do you think, at your age, it is right?' 
                            

within <divn>:

            <div1 type="chap5">
. . .
<p>`Repeat, "You are Old, Father William,"' said the Caterpillar.</p> 
<p>Alice folded her hands, and began:--</p>
<div2 type="poem>
<head type="poem-title" rend="center">[You Are Old, Father William]</head>
<lg type="stanza" rend="blockindent"> 
<l>`You are old, Father William,' the young man said,</l>
<l rend="indent">`And your hair has become very white;</l>
<l>And yet you incessantly stand on your head-</l>
<l rend=indent">Do you think, at your age, it is right?'</l>
</lg>
</div2>
          

or without <divn>:

. . .
<div1 type="chap5">
<p>`Repeat, "You are Old, Father William,"' said the Caterpillar.</p> 
<p>Alice folded her hands, and began:--</p>
<lg type="stanza" rend="blockindent"> 
<l>`You are old, Father William,' the young man said,</l>
<l rend="indent">`And your hair has become very white;</l>
<l>And yet you incessantly stand on your head-</l>
<l rend=indent">Do you think, at your age, it is right?'</l>
</lg>
            
          

2.15.5. <closer>

Occasionally a poem will be directly followed by a date or some other closing information that is not considered part of the poem. This information may be encoded using the <closer> element within the poem's <divn> outside of the last <lg>. Poems must be enclosed within a <divn> in order to use <closer>.

                
<div1 type="poem">
                    . . .
<lg type="stanza">
<l>Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;</l>
<l>And we are here as on a darkling plain</l>
<l>Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,</l>
<l>Where ignorant armies clash by night.</l>
</lg>
<closer>[1867]</closer> 
</div1>                    
                    
                

[P4: 6.11]

2.16. Notes

2.16.1. <note>

Use the <note> element to encode notes, using the place attribute to indicate the location of the note. Available place values are:

valuetype of note
end endnote, note appears at the end of a chapter, part, or volume
foot footnote, note appears at the foot of the page
inline note appears as a marked section in the body of the text

Notes without the place attribute will be considered in-line. For notes that are tagged at the point of reference, the numbers attached to the notes (as distinct from reference numbers that are located elsewhere) are normally recorded as the value of the n attribute and should not be included in the text of the note itself. Similarly, dingbats, crosses, daggers, and the like used to label notes for referencing may also be recorded as Unicode characters within the n attribute. A separate <ref> is not necessary. If a note is targeted by a <ref> elsewhere, it must contain a unique id attribute. Be sure to enclose the contents of notes in <p>s or other appropriate block elements if necessary. (See the section on internal linking for more information about <ref>s.)

2.16.2. In-line notes

In-line notes may be tagged directly in place.

                <p>Collections are ensembles of distinct entities or objects of any sort. 
<note place="inline">We explain below why we use the uncommon term collection instead 
of the expected set. our usage corresponds to the aggregate of many mathematical writings
and to the sense of class found in older logical writings.</note> The elements. . .</p>

2.16.3. Footnotes

Footnotes (those references, notes, and citations appearing at the bottom of the page) must be encoded where they are referenced. In other words, at the location of the footnote reference in the text, embed the <note> itself in place. If a footnote is tagged in place and the n attribute contains the note's reference number, projects must not encode a separate <ref> with that same number in the same location. The result would be two duplicate numbers appearing in place at the point of reference. However, if no n attribute is given in <note>, then a separate <ref> may be used in place. In either case, other references to that footnote from other locations in the text may be tagged with <ref>. If a footnote is targeted by any <ref> anywhere in the text, it must include an id attribute. (See the section on internal linking.)

<p>...Whites, however, did not vote to transfer power 
<hi rend="italic">to</hi> the black majority, as the 
media reported, but only to share power. 
<note id="fn0.1" place="foot" n="*">
<p>The use of racial and ethnic labels is not meant 
to reproduce, uncritically...</p></note>...</p>
            

2.16.4. Endnotes

Endnotes (those appearing at the end of a chapter, section, or other significant textual division) must be encoded where they appear in the document, in a separate <divn> if necessary. For an endnote to function properly, the reference to the note in the text must be tagged with <ref> and each endnote <note> must carry an id attribute. Further, if projects wish to allow users to link directly from the note back to its reference in the text, then the id and corresp attributes must also be properly used in <ref> and <note> respectively. (See the section on internal linking for more detailed instructions.)

<p>...falsely assumed South Africa to be the only developed 
capitalist country “[that] is not only ‘objectively’ ripe for 
revolution but has actually entered a stage of overt and 
seemingly irreversible revolutionary struggle.”
<ref target="bn0.1" id="d0e912" type="noteref">1</ref> ...</p>

....

<div2 id="d0e1020" type="endnotes">
   <head type="main">Notes</head>
   <note id="bn0.1" place="end" n="1" corresp="d0e912">
      <p>Paul M. Sweezy and Harry Magdoff, “The Stakes in 
         South Africa,” <hi rend="italic">Monthly Review,
         </hi> April 1986.</p>
   </note>
</div2>
            

[P4: 6.8.1]

2.16.5. <bibl> in <note>

When the footnote is clearly bibliographic in nature, enclose it within the TEI <bibl> element inside <note>. Projects may further encode the author or authors as <author>, titles as <title>, dates as <date>, and references to a page number, span of page numbers, or chapters as <biblScope>. (See the section on bibliographic citations.)

Example:


  <note n="5" id="n5" place="foot">
    <bibl>
      <author>Gallagher, Robert S., </author> 
      <title level="a">I Was Arrested, Of Course, </title>an interview,
      <title level="j">American Heritage, </title>
      <date>February, 1974, </date> 
      <biblScope>pp. 17‑24, 92‑94. </biblScope>
    </bibl>
  </note>
 
        

2.17. Names, Dates, and Addresses

Although it is not required, it sometimes useful to tag names, dates, and addresses as they occur throughout the text, not only when they occur on the title page. Tagging names and dates also allows them to be regularized in order to provide more fruitful searching.

2.17.1. <name>

The <name> element may be used to encode any proper noun or proper noun phrase. The type attribute can be used to indicate the type of name. Supported type values are "person" and "place". The reg attribute may be used to give a normalized or regularized form of the name.

At the time of the events which led to
<name reg="Benedict XII, Pope of Avignon (Jacques Fournier)" 
type="person">Fournier's</name> investigations, 
the local population consisted of between 200 and
250 inhabitants.
        

2.17.2. <date>

Use <date> to encode a date that has been given in any format. The value attribute can be used to contain the value of the date in the standard ISO 8601:2000 5.2.1 format (e.g., YYYY-MM-DD). Again, this is useful if document dates need to be indexed for searching.

Because the <date> element is not directly allowed within <divn> it can be surrounded by <dateline> if necessary. When it appears at the beginning or end of a division, <date> is normally located within the <opener> or <closer> elements. Projects not wishing to use <opener> and <closer> may also insert <date> directly within <p> if that is appropriate.

<p>Given on the <date value="1977-06-12">Twelfth Day of June
in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and
Seventy-seven of the Republic the Two Hundredth and first
and of the University the Eighty-Sixth.</date></p>
        

2.17.3. <address>, <addrLine>

The <address> and <addrLine> elements can be used to encode postal or other addresses. Enclose the entire address within <address> and each individual line within <addrLine>.

<address>
   <addrLine>110 Southmoor Road,</addrLine>
   <addrLine>Oxford OX2 6RB,</addrLine>
   <addrLine>UK</addrLine>
</address>
        

Because <address> is not allowed directly in <divn>, when it appears at the beginning or end of a division, it normally is enclosed within the <opener> or <closer> elements. Projects not wishing to use <opener> or <closer> may insert <address> directly inside a <p> if that is appropriate.

<div1 type="letter">
  <head>Appendix: Letter to Earl Warren</head>
  <opener>
    <date>November 10, 1971</date>
    <address>
      <addrLine>Honorable Earl Warren</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Supreme Court of the United States</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Washington, D. C.</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Re: ACLU Proposed Earl Warren Civil Liberties Award</addrLine>
    </address>
    <salute>Dear Governor:</salute>
  </opener>
        

[P4: 6.4]

2.18. Lists

2.18.1. <list>

Individual items in a list must be encoded as <item>s within <list> rather than as a series of <p>s or <l>s. Use the <list> element's type attribute to define the type of list appearing in the document. Valid type attributes are:

valuetype of list
ordered lists with sequential markers
bulleted marked or bulleted lists
simple unmarked or unnumbered lists
gloss definition lists (e.g., glossary, chronology, etc.) consisting of a term encoded in <label> and a definition or expansion of the term encoded in <item>
ordered numbered lists
label non-gloss lists whose items are each labeled with a <label>

Nest lists as appropriate, noting that they will be automatically indented to reflect the nesting. Use the <head> element to provide headings for lists.

2.18.2. Standard Ordered Lists

Encode lists that include sequential markers, numbers, or letters as <list type="ordered">. Use the rend attribute to describe the kind of sequential system used. Each item in the list is encoded as an <item>, without the sequential marker. The rend attribute will tell the stylesheet what kind of enumerative system to supply for display. If no system is specified in the rend attribute, then the default system of "arabic"--meaning arabic integers starting with "1."-- will be applied. The available rend values are as follows.

valueenumerators
arabic 1., 2., 3., etc.
upperalpha A., B., C., etc..
loweralpha a., b., c., etc.
upperroman I., II., III., etc.
lowerroman i., ii., iii., etc..
supplied non-standard enumerations encoded within each <item>'s n attribute (see below)

Departments

  1. English

  2. History

  3. Biology

  4. Political Science

<list type="ordered" rend="upperalpha">
   <head>Departments</head>
   <item>English</item>
   <item>History</item>
   <item>Biology</item>
   <item>Political Science</item>
</list>
              

2.18.3. Non-standard Ordered Lists

Lists that use a use a non-sequential or otherwise non-standard method of enumeration may still carry the type attribute value of "ordered" if the specific mark of numeration may be explicitly supplied in the n attribute of each individual <item> element. Whatever is encoded as the value of the n attribute will be exactly displayed as the enumerator for the item. Therefore, don't forget to include punctuation if it is desired. In such cases, set the <list>'s rend attribute to "supplied."

  1. Food and supplies

  2. Medicine

  3. Fuel

  4. Fuel storage containers

  5. Radios

<list type="ordered" rend="supplied">
   <item n="1.">Food and supplies</item>
   <item n="2.">Medicine</item>
   <item n="3.">Fuel</item>
   <item n="5.">Fuel storage containers</item>
   <item n="6.">Radios</item>
</list>
              

Note that all <item>s in a <list rend="supplied" type="ordered"> must contain an n attribute, even if some of the items conform to the standard enumerative conventions. Again, never encode the sequential marker within the text of the <item> as well. Such encoding will usually result in two duplicate markers appearing before each <item> in the list. n attribute.

[P4: 6.7]

2.18.4. <label>

Rather than enumerators, items in a <list type="gloss"> have labels, such as headwords in a glossary or dates in a chronology. The <label> element is used to capture each label immediately preceding its associated <item>.


<list type="gloss" rend="label">
<label>1835</label><item>born in Florida, MO</item> 
<label>1848</label><item>apprenticed</item>

2.19. Bibliographies

2.19.1. <bibl>, <listBibl>

Individual bibliographic citations should be encoded using the <bibl> element. Groups of <bibl>s are further contained within a <listBibl>.

The <bibl> element allows unstructured bibliographic data, including standard bibliographic elements as well as uncontained text such as more discursive or descriptive citations or annotation. Unlike the stricter bibliographic containers found in the TEI, <bibl> allows the encoder some latitude both in the order of subelements and the level of encoding.

There are no elements absolutely required within <bibl>. However, most projects will most likely take advantage of the following: <author>, <date>, <title>, <pubPlace>, <publisher>, and <biblScope>.

<listBibl>
   <bibl id="bib010_ch02">
      <author>Johnson, Douglas W.</author> 
      <date>1919</date>. 
      <title level="m">Shore processes</title>. 
      <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>, 
      <publisher>Wiley &amp; Sons</publisher>, 
      <biblScope type="pages">584 pp.</biblScope>, 
      <date>1919</date>.
   </bibl>
          

2.19.2. <title> levels

Projects using the <title> element may also use its level attribute to define the type of title being provided and dictate the standard typographic styling used to display the title. Therefore, <title>s that carry a level attribute do not need to be tagged again for italics, quotation marks, and the like. Titles that require special formatting not supported by the available levels can use the rend attribute to dictate the styling required. The supported attribute values and their resulting display are as follows:

valuetype of titletype of styling
a analytic title (article, poem, or other item published as part of a larger item)surrounded in quotation marks
m monographic title (book, collection, or other item published as a distinct item, including single volumes of multi-volume works)italics
j journal titleitalics
s series titleitalics
u title of unpublished material (including theses and dissertations unless published by a commercial press)surrounded in quotation marks

2.19.3. <note> in Bibliographic Citations

The CDL TEI DTDs all allow the <note> element within <bibl>. Use it to record notes, including in-line bibliographic annotation and footnotes, that occur within bibliographic citations.

                                     
<bibl><title level="m">Alice's adventures in Wonderland</title> by 
<author>Lewis Carroll</author>. 
<pubPlace>London</pubPlace>: 
<publisher>Macmillan</publisher>, 
<date value="1869.00.00">1869</date>.  
<note>This work is remarkable example of the intersection of mathematics and literature.</note></bibl>
                    

[P4: 6.10.1]

2.20. Internal Links and Cross References

Internal references and links can take many forms: numbers in the text that point to endnotes, page numbers in indexes that point to specific pages, pointers to specific sections of the text (e.g., "See Section 2A"), or short form bibliographic references (e.g., "Baxter 1978"). The practice described in this section applies only to references pointing to elements within the same file. See the section on external references to point to locations outside the document.

2.20.1. <ref>

Internal references will be encoded using the <ref> element and are required to have both a target and type attribute to indicate the id of the element being targeted and the nature of the target. (No specific system need be employed for creating ids in the elements being targeted as long as they are unique and begin with a letter character [e.g., id="id001"].) The following type attribute values are supported for <ref>:

valuetype of reference
citeref bibliographic citation reference
figref figure reference
fnoteref footnote reference
formularef formula reference
noteref endnote or general note reference
pageref reference to a <pb> element, such as would be used in an index
secref section reference, usually used to refer to a chapter or subsection.
tableref table reference

(Note that the use of a <ref> for footnotes is normally optional as the in-line presence of the <note> will automatically create a reference. References to the footnote from other locations are to be treated as <ref>s. See the section on footnotes for more information.)

<ref target="enote1" type="noteref">1</ref>

<note id="enote1" place="end" n="1">
. . .
</note>
        

In order to create a bidirectional link (i.e., from the reference [i.e., <ref>] to the referenced object [e.g., <note>] and then from the object back to the reference), projects must also include a unique id attribute in the <ref>. The value of the id in <ref> is then recorded in the corresp attribute of the element that is being referenced.

<ref id="bkd0e131" target="d0e131" type="noteref">1</ref>

<note id="d0e131" corresp="bkd0e131" place="end" n="1">
. . .
</note>
        

[P4: 6.6]

2.21. External Objects

2.21.1. <xref>

Use the <xref> element to refer to objects or locations outside of the encoded document. There are six attributes available for <xref>. Take care to note which of these are required.

attribute use possible values required?
doc contains the object's entity name[local entity name; must resolve to a valid declared entity]required when href is not used
href contains the external URI, may be URL or ARK[external URI (e.g., URL or ARK)]required when doc is not used
type indicate the type of object being linked to
obj
mets
url
pdf
sound
video
stream
required
rend defines the way the linking takes place
new
replace
embed
none
required
from contains the starting location of the portion of the digital object being linked to; also used to record single locations within objects[usually a unique id on a structural element]optional
to contains the ending location of the portion of the digital object being linked to[usually a unique id on a structural element; not required when only a single location in the object is being linked to ]optional

Note that every <xref> must have either a doc attribute or an href attribute or both.

The following table describes the actions dictated by the rend attribute:

valueresulting action
new a new window displaying the referenced external object appears
replace document view replaced by the referenced external object
embed the referenced external object is embedded in place
none no action

URL:

<xref href="http://www.cdlib.org" type="url" rend="new">
          

Result: new window displaying referenced URL.

CDL digital object:

<xref href="ark:/13030/kt5n39n99v" type="obj" rend="replace" from="ch02">
          

Result: document view replaced with Chapter 2 of referenced object.

PDF document:

<xref doc="kt167nb66r_ch19.pdf" type="pdf" rend="new">
          

Result: new window displaying a PDF of Chapter 19.

[P4: 14.2]

2.22. Graphic Elements

When encoding graphic elements such as illustrations, formulas, and tables, take special care to preserve both the information represented and, as far as possible, the form of presentation.

2.22.1. Tables

The CDL TEI Oral History guidelines employ the full XHTML table module instead of the TEI default table scheme to encode tables. See the full XHTML table module guidelines for detailed instructions on how to encode tables. Projects should try as much as possible to encode for correct display in both Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers on the Windows and Mac platforms. (Take care to encode definition lists as <list type="gloss"> when encountered; these can sometimes be confused for two-column tables).

<table id="tab001">
   <caption>PERCENTAGES OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE</caption>
   <colgroup span="3">
      <col align="right" span="1"/>
      <col align="char" char="." span="1"/>
      <col align="char" char="." span="1"/>
   </colgroup>
   <thead>
      <tr>
         <th>Latitude</th>
         <th>%</th>
         <th>Cumulative %</th>
      </tr>
   </thead>
   <tbody>
      <tr>
         <td>40 N 30 W</td>
         <td>8.68</td>
         <td>8.68</td>
      </tr>
        

[P4: 22.1]

2.22.2. <figure>

Figures, charts, plates, formulas, or any other component of the text that must be delivered as an image must be encoded using the <figure> element. Any <figure> must contain a unique id attribute and an entity attribute that contains a valid entity name that resolves to a real file. The entity named in the entity attribute must be declared at the beginning of the document in order for the document to validate and function properly during ingest and preview. See the sections on associated files and image files for detailed instructions on how to create entities and produce image files. The rend attribute is also required. The following rend values are available:

valuedisplay
inline in-line as part of a text string
block as a block separate from the surrounding text
popup linked to a higher resolution version; for pop-up figures use the following syntax: rend="popup(ENTITY_NAME)", where the value in the parentheses is a valid entity name

Figure captions may be encoded in the <head> element within <figure> using the the type attribute value "caption".

<!ENTITY fig001   SYSTEM "http://www.server.domain/figures/fig001.gif" NDATA GIF>
<!ENTITY fig001_h SYSTEM "http://www.server.domain/figures/fig001_h.gif" NDATA GIF>
]>

<figure id="fig001" entity="fig001" rend="popup(fig001_h)">
   <head type="caption">Bottom topography in the South Atlantic Ocean.</head>
</figure>
        

[P4: 22.3]

2.22.3. Formulas

2.22.3.1. Formulas in <figure>

The difficulty of encoding mathematical and chemical formulas almost always makes it necessary for projects to submit an image of a formula rather than a marked-up representation. To provide the image of a formula, use <figure>.

                
<!ENTITY formula001 SYSTEM "http://www.server.domain/kt168nb88r_formula001.gif" NDATA GIF>
<!ENTITY fig001_h SYSTEM "http://www.server.domain/figures/formula001_h.gif" NDATA GIF>
]>
. . .
<figure id="formula001" entity="formula001" rend="inline">
                    

2.22.3.2. <formula>

The CDL also supports the encoding of TeX formulas within the TEI's <formula> element. To encode TeX formulas, give the notation attribute a value of "TeX" and use the rend attribute to indicate whether the formula should be displayed "inline" or as a "block". Projects that wish to give both a TeX expression and and an image of the formula may do both.

<formula notation="TeX" rend="block">
\[
\sigma_{s, \vartheta, p} = ({{\rho_{s, \vartheta, p}} -1})1000.
\]
</formula>
        

[P4: 22.2]

2.23. Arbitrary Containers and Segments

Arbitrary containers (<ab> and <seg>) can be nested virtually anywhere in the document and therefore can be used sparingly to resolve otherwise impossible encoding problems. When a necessary element is not valid in the location where it should logically go within a TEI document, an arbitrary container can be be inserted in the correct place instead. The text can then either be tagged directly as the content of the arbitrary container, or it can be tagged first with the desired element, which is then dropped into the arbitrary container.

Arbitrary containers may also be used when no other available container element is appropriate for the text being marked up. This usage, however, should be very limited.

The type attribute is required for both <ab> and <seg> elements. Suggested attribute values for type are "figure", "illgrp", "tblgrp", and "text". Projects may assign other values as needed.

2.23.1. <seg>

Use <seg> to contain a segment of text or an element that may normally appear in a paragraph but needs to encoded inside another element in which it is not otherwise allowed.

    
<address>
   <addrLine>The Compton Hotel<seg type=figure><figure id="seal1" entity="fig001"></addrLine></seg>
   <addrLine>1515 42nd Street</addrLine>
   <addrLine>Chicago, IL</addrLine>
</address> 
    

2.23.2. <ab>

Use <ab> to contain element that may normally appear in a paragraph, but needs to be encoded directly into a major division such as a <divn> where it is not otherwise allowed.

<ab type="illgrp">
  <figure id="fig001" entity="kt167nb66r_fig001.gif">
</ab>

      
          

[P4: 14.3]

Chapter 3. Quality Assurance

3.1. Validation

All documents must parse correctly before being submitted to the CDL. All texts will be validated on ingest and rejected if errors are detected.

3.2. Best Practice Checking

In addition to being validated against the supplied DTDs, documents will be checked for conformance to the appropriate CDL TEI best practice guidelines using a Schematron assertion language schema. Users can check their documents on their own by using the CDL Text Preview page

http://texts.cdlib.org/dynaxml/preview.html

3.3. Proofreading

Proofreading the actual text of submitted documents is the responsibility of the contributor. It is highly recommended that all texts at least be spot-checked for major errors before submission. If the project warrants it, documents should be proofread by a professional using the CDL Text Preview page:

http://texts.cdlib.org/dynaxml/preview.html

Tag Library

<address>

Use to record addresses (city, street, etc.). Must contain at least one <addrLine>. Commonly found within <closer> and/or associated with signatures and bylines.

<closer>
  <signed>Amelia R. Fry</signed>
  <signed>Interviewer‑Editor</signed>
  <date>28 May 1975</date>
  <address>
    <addrLine>Regional Oral History Office</addrLine>
    <addrLine>486 The Bancroft Library</addrLine>
    <addrLine>University of California at Berkeley</addrLine>
  </address>
</closer>
            
<addrLine>

Use to record individual lines within a multiline address.

<closer>
  <signed>Amelia R. Fry</signed>
  <signed>Interviewer‑Editor</signed>
  <date>28 May 1975</date>
  <address>
    <addrLine>Regional Oral History Office</addrLine>
    <addrLine>486 The Bancroft Library</addrLine>
    <addrLine>University of California at Berkeley</addrLine>
  </address>
</closer>
            
<author>

Use to record authors. Encountered most commonly within <bibl>

<bibl>
  <author>Archie Williams,</author>
  <title rend="quoted">The Joy of Flying: Olympic Gold, Air Force Colonel, and teacher,</title>
  <date>1993</date>
</bibl>
            
<back>

Along with <front>, and <body>, one of the 3 major subdivisions of the TEI <text> element.

<bibl>

Use to encode bibliographical references. <bibl> will be found in various places throughout a TEI encoded text. Most notably they may be found within footnotes, endnotes, and full bibliographies. Within <bibl>, record final punctuation within the element in which it occurs, but do not record final spaces. These will be generated through stylesheets.

<div1 type="bibliography">
  <head>References</head>
  <listBibl>
    <bibl>
      <author>Morris M. Doyle,</author>
      <title rend="quoted">The Spirit and Morale of Private Philanthropy: Stanford
        University and the James Irvine Foundation,</title>
      <date>1990.</date>
    </bibl>
    <bibl>
      <author>Herman E. Gallegos,</author>
      <title rend="quoted">Equity and Diversity: Hispanics in the Nonprofit World, </title>
      <date>1989.</date>
    </bibl>
    <bibl>
      <author>Rhoda H. and Richard M. Goldman,</author>
      <title rend="quoted">Expererience and Adventure in the Goldman Charitable Funds,</title>
      <date>1994.</date>
    </bibl>
  </listBibl>
</div1>
<biblScope>

Use within <bibl> to record specific page numbers or a named subdivision of a larger work (e.g., a chapter). Do not confuse with the more common <extent>, used to record the total size of the work being cited.

<note id="n10" n="10">
  <bibl>
    <author>John May,</author>
    <title rend="italic">Building a Community Foundation,</title>
    <publisher>Regional Oral History Office, University of California, </publisher>
    <pubPlace>Berkeley,</pubPlace>
    <date>1976.</date>
    <biblScope>p. 57</biblScope>
  </bibl>
</note>
<body>

Along with <front> and <back>, one of the 3 major subdivisions of the TEI <text> element. For oral histories, reserve the <body> element exclusively for the text of the transcribed interview.

<byline>

Use to encode the author of a particular section within a TEI-encoded document. Typically this appears immediately below the <head> but may also occur at the end of the section. Frequently this element can be recognized by the presence of a word or phrase indicating the function of the cited individual, e.g., "By" or "Edited by".

<div2 type="essay">
  <head>Important in CI Harbor History ‑ Edwin Carty</head>
  <byline>By George Glass</byline>
  <p>Edwin L. Carty's life is a trophy case stuffed with big game.</p>
  <p>Some of his trophies hang in his den, like cape buffalo, tiger, deer, elk, rhino,
    polar bear, leopard, and a score more.</p>
</div2>
<cit>

Use to associate a quoted statement with its source. Typically used within a footnote or endnote, but also found occasionally within prose elements such as <p>. This element must contain both a <quote> and a <bibl>.

22 " It is difficult—and precarious—to verbalize simply the emotions of great persons: so much of our culture is so maudlin and sentimental." [ John Kirkley].

<note id="n22" n="22">
  <cit>
    <quote>It is difficult——and precarious——to verbalize simply the emotions of great
      persons: so much of our culture is so maudlin and sentimental.</quote>
    <bibl>John Kirkley</bibl>
  </cit>
</note>
<closer>

Use to group together dateline, byline, salutation and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter.

<div2 type="letter"> ...<p>I have never known anyone with more energy, enthusiasm, and
    dedication to any cause that Ty believed in and participated in.</p>
  <closer>
    <signed>C.L. Dellums</signed>
    <date>12 April 1973</date>
    <address>
      <addrLine>Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Pacific Coast Headquarters</addrLine>
      <addrLine>1716 Seventh Street</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Oakland, California 94607</addrLine>
    </address>
  </closer>
</div2>
<date>

A general purpose element used to encode dates in any format. Typically used in <bibl>, <closer>, <byline>, <dateline>, <salute>, <label> (in chronological lists) and <signed>.

<bibl>
  <author>PAUL, Alice</author>.<title rend="quoted">Conversations with Alice Paul: An Autobiography.</title>
  <date>1975</date>
</bibl>
<dateline>

Use dateline solely to encode a city and date of authorship or creation of a document, especially a letter or newspaper article. Commonly found within <opener> and <closer>.

<closer>
  <signed>Terry Cox</signed>
  <dateline>
    <name>Berkeley, </name>
    <date>June, 1946</date>
  </dateline>
</closer>

Do not use dateline to encode a full address. Use <address> and <date> instead.

<div1 - div7>

The primary divisions within <body> and <back>. All division hierarchies should begin with <div1>. Do not use the unnumbered recursive <div>. Do not use element <div0>.

<editor>

Outside of the <teiHeader>, use solely within <bibl> to encode an editorial statement.

<bibl>
  <editor>Rankin, Jeannette, Editor</editor>
  <title rend="underline">Activist for World Peace, Women's Rights, and Democratic Government</title>.<date>1974</date>
</bibl>
<epigraph>

Use for encoding random quotations or lines of poetry commonly appearing at the top or bottom of major divisions. Attributed epigraphs should contain a <cit>, which itself includes a <quote> and a <bibl>. Unattributed epigraphs in verse form should contain <lg>. Use the rend attribute of <q> to record italics. Use verse lines (<l>) to encode the lines of verse.

I thought I saw an eagle but it might have been a vulture I never could decide Leonard Cohen

<epigraph>
  <cit>
    <quote rend="italic">
      <l>I thought I saw an eagle</l>
      <l>but it might have been a vulture</l>
      <l>I never could decide</l>
    </quote>
    <bibl>
      <author>Leonard Cohen</author>
    </bibl>
  </cit>
</epigraph>
<extent>

Outside the <teiHeader>, use only within <bibl> to record the full extent of the referenced bibliographical entity. Do not confuse with <biblScope>

<bibl>
  <author>Allen E. Broussard (1929‑1996)</author> Judge<title rend="italic">A Calfornia
    Supreme Court Justice Looks at Law and Society, 1964‑1996</title>
  <extent>xii, 257 pp.</extent>
  <date>1997</date>
</bibl>
<front>

With<body>, and <back>, one of the major structural divisions in the <text> element of a TEI document. For oral histories, all divisions preceding the transcribed text of the oral history should be encoded within <front>.

<head>

Use to encode the headings of any major divisions such as chapters. Also used to encode the headings of lists.

<list>
  <head>Education</head>
  <item>Sacred Heart High School, Lake Charles, Louisiana ‑ 1945.</item>
  <item>City College of San Francisco, Associate in Arts Degree ‑ 1948. Elected to the
    Club Advisory Board and the Student Council.</item>
  <item>University of California, Berkeley, B.A. Degree in Political Science ‑ 1950.
    Member, Varsity Debate Team.</item>
  <item>University of California School of Law at Berkeley (Boalt Hall) ‑ J.D. Degree ‑
    1953. Top 15% of class.</item>
</list>
<hi>

Use to encode all bold, underlined, or italicized text. Use of an associated rend attribute is required. Valid rend attributes are:

bold italic nonproport quoted smcaps sub super underline

Use rend="super" to record superscript text and rend="sub" to record subscript text. Do not use for superscript footnote numbers.

<item>

Use to encode individual items within lists. <item>s may themselves contain <list> elements (nested lists).

<back>
  <div1 type="guide">
    <head>Tape Guide</head>
    <list>
      <item>Interview 1: November 14, 1990 <list>
          <item>tape 1, side a</item>
          <item>tape 1, side b</item>
          <item>tape 2, side a</item>
          <item>tape 2, side b</item>
          <item>tape 11, side a insert</item>
          <item>tape 2, side b resumes</item>
          <item>tape 11, side a insert</item>
          <item>tape 2, side b resumes</item>
          <item>tape 3, side a</item>
          <item>tape 3, side b not recorded</item>
        </list>
      </item>
      <item>Interview 2: December 6, 1990 <list>
          <item>tape 4, side a</item>
          <item>tape 4, side b</item>
          <item>tape 5, side a</item>
          <item>tape 5, side b</item>
        </list>
      </item>
    </list>
  </div1>
</back>

Use to separate lines of verse. Typically encountered within a <lg> used to encode passages of verse. Do not confuse with <lb/>, used to break lines in other generic contexts.

<label>

Use <label> exclusively within <list>, specifically a definition list. A definition list is suitable for a traditional chronological list, where the date is encoded within <label> and the event information within the item.

<div1 type="chronology">
  <head>Chronology</head>
  <list type="gloss">
    <label>
      <date>1861</date>
    </label>
    <item>First edition published</item>
    <label>
      <date>1865</date>
    </label>
    <item>Edition completes second reprint cycle</item>
    <label>
      <date>1866</date>
    </label>
    <item>Draft for second edition completed</item>
  </list>
</div1>
<lb>

In general, do not record line breaks within the encoded document. <lb/> may be used in certain situations where it is important to retain the rough layout for purposes of clarity and where no other elements are available for the purpose. Use <l> to record line breaks within verse.

<lg>

Use to contain passages of poetry or other verse. Encode within <epigraph> when such passages appear at the top or the bottom of major subdivisions.

<lg>
  <head>First Snow</head>
  <l>The cows are bawling in the mountains, </l>
  <l>The snow flakes fall, </l>
  <l>They are leaving the pools and pebbled fountains, </l>
  <l>Troubled they bawl. </l>
  <l>They are winding down the mountain's shoulders </l>
  <l>Through the open pines, </l>
  <l>The wild rose thicket, the granite boulders, </l>
  <l>In broken lines. </l>
  <l>Each calf trots close beside its mother, </l>
  <l>And so they go </l>
  <l>Bawling and calling to one another </l>
  <l>About the snow.</l>
</lg>
<list>

Use to encode lists of various sorts as they occur throughout the text. Use <listBibl> for lists of bibliographic references.

<listBibl>

Use to encode lists of bibliographical references.

div2 type="bibliography">
  <head>Publications List——Valeska Bary, 1924‑1936</head>
  <listBibl>
    <bibl>
      <author>Valeska Bari,</author>
      <title rend="quoted">Fellow Citizens: A Story,</title>
      <title level="j" rend="italic">Atlantic Monthly.</title>
      <biblScope>vol. 133 (June 1924), pp. 806‑812.</biblScope>
    </bibl>
    <bibl>
      <author>Valeska Bari,</author>
      <title rend="quoted">Citizens Who May not Have Wives,</title>
      <title level="j" rend="italic">Woman Citizens.</title> ns,<biblScope> vol. 12 (Dec.
        1927), pp. 20‑21.</biblScope>
    </bibl>
    <bibl>
      <author>Valeska Bari</author>
      <title rend="quoted">Eyes of Loaiza,</title>
      <title level="j" rend="italic">Catholic World.</title>
      <biblScope>vol. 127 (Sept. 1938), pp. 651‑659.</biblScope>
    </bibl>
  </listBibl>
</div2>
<milestone>

Use to encode tape numbers, reel numbers, tape sides, and interview dates when these are used to create separations within the text. Do not use <head> to encode these entities unless the transcribed text of the oral history is otherwise undivided. Use the n attribute to encode the text of the milestone. <milestone/> must also include a unit attribute containing one of these values:

unit="interview" Use to record interview numbers, and/or interview dates unit="tape" Use to record tape numbers, reel numbers, and/or tape sides

<body>
  <div1 type="chapter">
    <head>I Family Background and Childhood</head>
    <milestone n="Interview 1, December 29, 1972" unit="interview"/>
    <div2 type="section">
      <head>Family Tree</head>
      <div3 type="subsection">
        <head>Beecher</head>
        <sp who="Parker">
          <speaker>Parker</speaker>
          <p>Would you like to tell me something about your family?</p>
        </sp>
        <sp who="Bary">
          <speaker>Bary</speaker>
          <p>Well, my family. Take my, mother's side. She was part ... </p>
        </sp>
      </div3>
    </div2>
  </div1>
</body>
<name>

Use name within the <fileDesc> element of the <teiHeader> to record the various individuals involved in the creation of the oral history.

<note>

In the <teiHeader>, use <note> in <sourceDesc> <bibl> to encode a brief abstract of the oral history. Set the type attribute to "abstract".

Outside of <teiHeader>, use to encode footnotes and endnotes. Encode all such notes at the point in the text where they are referenced.

Use the n attribute of <note> to record the footnote number. Assign unique ids to all notes. Set the place attribute to "foot" for footnotes and "end" for endnotes. Do not record the actual footnote number within the content of <note>.

<opener>

Use to group together dateline, byline, salutation and similar phrases appearing as a preliminary group at the beginning of a division, especially of a letter.

<div2 type="letter">
  <opener>
    <signed>C.L. Dellums</signed>
    <date>12 April 1973</date>
    <address>
      <addrLine>Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Pacific Coast Headquarters</addrLine>
      <addrLine>1716 Seventh Street</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Oakland, California 94607</addrLine>
    </address>
  </opener>
  <p>I have never known anyone with more energy, enthusiasm, and dedication to any cause
    that Ty believed in and participated in.</p>
</div2>
<p>

Use to encode paragraphs.

<pb>

Use to record all page breaks wherever they occur within the document. Assign the page number to the n attribute. Assign the page number with the letter "p" prepended as the id attribute. Record page numbers appearing at the bottom of a page as if they were at the top of the page. Include <pb/> within any <divn> within which it occurs, before the <head> element.

<pb id="p76" n="76"/>
<profileDesc>

A required element of the <teiHeader>.

<publisher>

Use within <bibl> to record the name of the publisher.

<note id="n4" n="4">
  <bibl>
    <title rend="italic">Electron Structures of Organic Molecules,</title>
    <pubPlace>New Jersey :</pubPlace>
    <publisher>Prentice Hall,</publisher>
    <date>1952.</date>
  </bibl>
</note>
<pubPlace>

Use within <bibl> to record the place of publication.

<note id="n10" n="10" rend="fnote">
  <bibl>
    <title rend="italic">Structural Organic Chemistry,</title>
    <publisher>Willard Grant Press,</publisher>
    <pubPlace>Boston,</pubPlace>
    <date>1975.</date>
  </bibl>
</note>
<q>

Use to encode block quotes and quoted text within epigraphs. Set the rend attribute when necessary.

<p>
  <q rend="blockquote">
    <p>Archie Williams '39 came to Berkeley from San Mateo Junior College, having never
      run the quarter‑mile under 49 seconds. In 1936, his first season on the Bear
      Varsity, he won the Pacific Coast Conference and NCAA Championships, in the times of
      46.8 and 47.0 respectively. In a preliminary heat at the NCAA he set a world record
      in a time of 46.1. He then went on to win the Gold Medal in the 400 meters at the
      Olympic Games in Berlin in a time of 46.5.</p>
  </q>
</p>

Within <cit> encode blockquotes within <quote>.

<ref>

Use to encode internal links of various sorts. Most commonly used to encode page numbers within indexes.

<div1 type="index">
  <head>Index</head>
  <p>[The numbers below represent page numbers in the volume.]</p>
  <list>
    <item>Abbott, Grace, <ref target="p137">137</ref>, <ref target="p142">142</ref>,<ref
      target="p143">143</ref>, <ref target="p144">144</ref>
      <list>
        <item>personality, <ref target="p116">116</ref>, <ref target="p138">138</ref>,
            <ref target="p148">148</ref>
        </item>
      </list>
    </item>
    <item>Acheson, Dean, <ref target="p102">102</ref>
    </item>
    <item>administration: <list>
        <item>bureau autonomy, <ref target="p220">220‑224</ref>
        </item>
        <item>by presidential appointees (Puerto Rico), <ref target="p120">120‑122</ref>,
            <ref target="p124">124‑126</ref>
        </item>
        <item>educational process, <ref target="p73">73</ref>, <ref target="p81">81</ref>,
            <ref target="p87">87</ref>, <ref target="p198">198‑199</ref>
        </item>
      </list>
    </item>
  </list>
</div1>
<salute>

Use to encode salutations for transcribed letters and memos.

<div3 type="letter">
  <head>Correspondence from Earl Warren<lb/>July 3, 1954</head>
  <opener>
    <address>
      <addrLine>Supreme Court of the United States Washington 13. D. C.</addrLine>
      <addrLine>CHAMBERS OF</addrLine>
      <addrLine>THE CHIEF JUSTICE</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Mr. Edwin L. Carty,</addrLine>
      <addrLine>326 South A Street,</addrLine>
      <addrLine>Oxnard, California.</addrLine>
    </address>
    <salute>Dear Ed:</salute>
  </opener>
  <p>Thanks for your letter of June 28th. I have intended to write you for some months.</p>
</div3>
<signed>

Use to encode the closing salutation for a foreward, dedication, memo, or letter.

<div2 type="letter">
  <head>Appendix 2</head>
  <opener>
    <date>April 1, 1953</date>
    <salute>My dear Mr. President:</salute>
  </opener>
  <p>I have the great honor to enclose a nomination in favor of Stanley N. Barnes of
    California to be Assistant Attorney General to fill an existing vacancy.</p>
  <p>I recommend the nomination.</p>
  <closer>
    <signed> Respectfully,<lb/> The President<lb/> The White House</signed>
  </closer>
</div2>
<sp>

Use to encode the transcribed oral text within an oral history. Surround each speaker's text with an <sp> element. Encode paragraphs as necessary within <sp>. The who attribute is required. Who is a an attribute of type IDREFS. It must contain a valid identifier to an existing element with a matching id attribute within the <particDesc> subelement of the <teiHeader> <profileDesc>. Encode the speaker as it appears in an additional <speaker> element.

<sp who="fry">
  <speaker>Fry</speaker>
  <p>Well who <hi rend="italics">did</hi> put it on the ballot? What did you say Hawkins'
    view was on that?</p>
</sp>
<sp who="rumford">
  <speaker>Rumford</speaker>
  <p>Oh. I don't know what his views were. I imagine he wasn't particular about putting it
    on the ballot either, because we knew that if it was put on the ballot that it would
    be defeated.</p>
  <p>The same was true with Proposition 14. Proposition 14 passed, which purportedly, not
    directly, repealed the so‑called Rumford Act. Now, I say "purportedly" because it
    really was an effort to amend the Constitution, rather than to repeal my law.</p>
</sp>
<TEI.2>

The root element for all TEI-encoded documents. Required.

<teiHeader>

The container element for the TEI Header. Required.

<text>

The highest-level container element, with <teiHeader>, in <TEI.2>. Contains the <front>, <body>, and <back>.

<title>

Use within <bibl> to record the title of a monograph, journal, article, speech, etc. Many bibliographical references describe an individual article within a journal or other periodical. The title of the article will be encoded within one <title> and the title of the journal will be encoded within a second <title>. In such cases—when <bibl> contains two titles—set the level attribute of the second title to "j" to differentiate it from the first title. Otherwise do not use the level attribute. Always use the rend attribute to record the specific highlighting used for any title. For quoted titles, do not record the actual quotation marks surrounding the title. Use instead the value rend="quoted".

rend="italic" rend="underline" rend="bold" rend="quoted"

<bibl>
  <author>Ida Jackson, </author>
  <title rend="quoted">Overcoming Barriers in Education, </title>
  <date>1990.</date>
</bibl>
<bibl>
  <author>John Miller, </author>
  <title rend="quoted">Issues of Criminal Justice and Black Politics in California,
  </title> in <title level="j" rend="underline">Legislative Issue Management and Advocacy,
    1961‑1974, </title>
  <date>1983.</date>
</bibl>